Yet, the problem might occur with small plants, which do not have enough financial resources to afford such substantial investments. However, social responsibility issue, including the one of environment, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, all the companies need to realize that by cooperating with government and enhancing decrease in air pollution levels they are actually improving their public image and provide wide market for their products or services. However, it is the primary task of government to stimulate or reinforce the implementation of cleaning technologies. The incentives for industrial corporations to implement cleaning technologies may include: Tax extension for a certain period; Tax reduction or tax privileges for implementing certain type of technology; Allowing faster depreciation; Granting certain political privileges; Encouraging cooperation among companies to provide patterns of scientific technology. Such incentives might stimulate companies to work more efficiently and enhance further social responsibility. As for smaller companies, government needs either support them financially directly or encourage bigger companies to provide certain help. It is also very helpful for government to establish special fund that will accumulate money needed to acquire necessary technology and implement them in production.
Short, essay on the conservation of Natural Resources
However, the main problem pertaining to this means of transportation is that there are not so many lines where it can be used. Thus, the primary task of the government regarding the environmental issue of cleaner air is extending sky train system and making this means of transportation more available yellow for public use. It is an issue of crucial importance for the government to promote and assist in production and launching of public transport, which is able to work using electricity, such as electric tricycle, electric bus, and electric-motorcycle. These kinds of products are not yet so much widely used and produced. Those are very commercial products. Therefore, they need special governmental care and support. Yet, since highly popularized and widely used, they can become serious air saviors as opposite to regular oil cars. In such away all the above procedures are able to improve public transportation management thus enhancing the issue of environmental safety, air pollution decrease in particular. Adopting legislature obliging industries to reduce emission. It is very important for government to oblige industrial firms to cut their pollution levels. Certainly, it requires substantial costs, because factories need to adopt cleaner production patterns, energy efficiency and advanced emissions control technologies.
Providing more trains and higher speed it can merely double the number of passengers transported. As bts book reports, the bts skytrain is the safest, most comfortable and convenient way to get around Bangkok. In service since december 5, 1999, it has transformed the face of public transportation in the Thai capital, offering both residents and visitors a comfortable ride through central Bangkok lifting them above the chronic congestion, noise and pollution of the streets below. Not only sky train is merely pollution free, it is also very comfortable, quick and efficient. The bts sky trains high-capacity operating system ensures almost no breakdowns and a virtual 100 punctuality. Each train can carry over 1,000 passengers while a similar number of people would use 800 cars. Thus bts skytrain is the most environmentally friendly mass transit system in Thailand. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive and safe.
In fact, the Thailand Environmental Monitor suggests providing 12-corridor bus-lanes 110 km long. Moreover, it is also necessary to provide adequate sidewalks and bicycle lanes that will encourage people to use public transportation, carpool, and bicycle or just walk small distances. Implement mass rapid transit system. Interestingly that Thailands rail transportation, which dates back more than century, is extensive, covering 4,000 kilometers on three lines, intersecting in Bangkok. The system currently offers affordable transportation from the malaysian fuller border to northernmost provinces in the west. Thus, it has good capacity. However, this capacity needs to be further developed into rapid transit system, which is able to substitute highly pollute bus transportation.
The second one takes care of Thailand light rail system. Both report to the ministry of Transport and Communications. To improve public transportation in Thailand, it is necessary to make the following steps: Increase the number of Euro2 buses running. Those are buses that have lower emission and higher speed. As bmta reports, it has launched Euro 2 buses. Yet, there are not enough of them to satisfy all public needs. Implement more bus lanes to decrease the pressure in peak times.
Essay on global warming
Sulfur content of automotive diesel is 2,000 ppm and the Clean Air Act requires reduction to 5 the norm used by many countries today. Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources biography and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities. Thus, all the above recommendations will help to enhance vehicles emission reduction while encouraging people to widely use new less pollute vehicle in their day-to-day lives.
Improving public transportation management, the major problem with public transportation in Thailand is its low level of diversification and thus high level of those transportation vehicles that produce high levels of emission. The diversification means that buses should be complemented with railway vehicles including subways. Skytrain is an excellent low polluting alternative as well. Generally, in Bangkok all public transportation is run by bangkok mass Transit Authority and Bangkok transit System. The first one is in charge of all wheel transport,.
Then almost 25 of that oil and fuel is spit out, unburned, through exhaust. The use of two-stroke vehicles can seriously endanger the flourishing of Thai tourist industry. Therefore, four-strokes engine production is very important. The four-stroke versions are much cleaner. The operating cost, however, may be lower as they are more fuel-efficient.
Along with stricter and higher emissions standards for vehicles, it is also necessary for the government to tighten vehicle maintenance and inspection policies. It means that, for instance, every city should have a special agency that is the head responsible for checking all the vehicles intended for public transportation and those of private use. Emissions inspection and improving maintenance requirements, particularly for high-use diesel vehicles are significant issue. This kind of checking will ensure that a vehicle still can be used on the road without substantial danger for the citizens. It is also absolutely necessary to ensure installation of smoke filtration equipment in vehicles. According to world Bank recommendations (2002 the government also needs to require manufacturers to install exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles. This will not increase cost of production substantially (just about by 2 but will drastically reduce carbon Monoxide, hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen. It is also quite efficient to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel.
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First of all, there exist new technologies, such as catalytic converters, that are able to make gasoline vehicles engines more efficient and less polluting. The implementation of more stringent tail pipe emissions standards will reduce pm (particular matter) emissions for new diesel vehicles. In fact, there exist Euro 1 summary and Euro 2 standards of diesel vehicle emissions. The indicators of these standards of emissions are quite high. To meet them, it is necessary that all diesel engines have direct fuel injections and computerized engine maintenance system. Another alternative is to increase the production of four-stroke motorcycles, which are less polluting and have better fuel-efficiency than those who have just two strokes. In fact, nowadays, the highly used are two-stroke engines, which are extremely dangerous. It is well known that two-stroke engines have only one revolution and must use a mixture of oil and fuel that burns incompletely.
In order to essay improve the situation and decrease the level of emission produced y cars and motorcycles, the Thai government needs to foster efficient and less pollute vehicles on one hand, and encourage citizens to use those vehicles on the other hand. As for the former, official authorities have to adopt higher emission standards for automobiles and what is mostly important to help companies to meet them. It can be done in the following way: Tax privileges for companies that produce certain amount of less pollute vehicles; to ensure governmental orders for those vehicles; to provide financial support for companies who work out special technologies that facilitate the process of creating less. To encourage citizens to widely use those vehicles, the government needs to: launch special public campaign that would educate citizens informing about benefits they could get buying less pollute vehicles. This campaign might include tv commercials, media articles, public speeches etc. Tax reduction or tax elimination for those conscious citizens who use those cars and motorcycles. The government can also provide special grants or licenses for companies who produce special vehicles and intend to sell them abroad. Below, the short overview of special technologies that can reduce the amount of emission produced by vehicles and other necessary procedures pertaining to vehicles polluting capacities is provided.
policies and means: High cost. Resistance on behalf of corporations to implementation of those technologies because of their high costs. Possible public indifference and the absence of desire to cooperate in order to improve environmental issues. Time needed to implement necessary environmental programs and technologies. Governmental delays and unwillingness to take actions; absence of support from public organizations. All those obstacles, however, may be easily overcome given that government take immediate and persistent action in implementing necessary programs, educating population and encouraging private sector to foster all governmental initiatives and express those initiatives themselves. Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles. According to public perception polls on the issue of air pollution held in Bangkok, the majority of residents ask (90 of those the total number of respondents) named motor vehicles the main source of air pollution. Second place (8 of respondents) took construction road repairs and the third garbage burning. (Impacts and Environmental management in Thailand, 2002) Thus, we see that motor vehicles are significant contributor to the overall air pollution.
Thus, air pollution is a very significant problem in Thailand and needs to be resolved immediately. In Thailand, the main responsibility of air quality monitoring is put upon the pollution Control department book (PCD). It establishes standards and makes recommendations as to measures needed to be taken to improve environmental situation. Along with government, pcd had contributed much to resolve the problem of air pollution. However, there is still much to be done. The main ways to fix the air pollution issue are: Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles, which are the most significant pollutants. Improving public transport and traffic management. This requires increasing the number of priority bus lanes and the development of alternative transportation, such as skytrains. Adopting legislature that obliges industries to reduce emission.
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By james douglas and Kelly McNight. Air pollution in Thailand is considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems in the country. Especially severe are the implications of the problem for people who live in cities, where the level gender of air pollution is substantially higher. The main air pollution contributors are power plants, factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, agricultural burning and open cooking. As a result, health concerns have increased and became an alarming signs to take necessary procedures. Moreover, the non-health implications are significant as well. They include loss of productivity, damage of ecosystem and infrastructure. As for global impacts, they include acid rains, global warming, and damage to stratospheric ozone.