The modern transmitter evolved mainly from the work of Emile berliner and Edison in 1877 and Francis Blake in 1878. Blake's transmitter was later sold to bell for stock. The claims of other inventors were contested. Daniel Drawbaugh, from rural Pennsylvania, with little formal schooling, almost won a legal battle with Bell in 1884 but was defeated by a 4 to 3 vote in the supreme court. The claim by this "Edison of the cumberland Valley" was the most exciting (and futile) litigation over telephone patents. Altogether, the bell Company was involved in 587 lawsuits, of which 5 went to the supreme court; Bell won every case. A convincing argument was that no competitor claimed originality until 17 months after Bell's patent.
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Other inventors had been at work. Between 18 Professor Elisha Gray (of Oberlin College) invented an "automatic self-adjusting telegraph relay, " installed it in hotels, and made telegraph printers and repeaters. He tried to perfect a speaking telephone from his harmonic (multiple-current) telegraph. The Gray and Batton Manufacturing Company of Chicago developed into the anne western Electric Company. Another competitor was Professor Amos. Dolbear, who insisted that Bell's telephone was only an improvement on an 1860 invention by johann reis, a german, who had experimented with pigs' ear membranes and may have made a telephone. Dolbear's own instrument, operating by "make and break" current, could transmit pitch but not voice quality. In 1879 Western the Union, with its American Speaking Telephone company, ignored Bell's patents and hired Thomas Edison, along with Dolbear and Gray, as inventors and improvers. Later that year Bell and Western Union formed a joint company, with the latter getting 20 percent for providing wires, circuits, and equipment. Theodore vail, organizer of Bell Telephone company, consolidated six companies in 1881.
Establishing an Industry, repeated demonstrations overcame public skepticism. The first reciprocal outdoor conversation was between Boston and Cambridge, mass., by bell and Watson on Oct. In 1877 the first telephone was installed in a private home; a conversation was conducted between Boston and New essay York, using telegraph lines; in may, the first switchboard, devised. Holmes in Boston, was a burglar alarm connecting five banks; and in July the first organization to commercialize the invention, the bell Telephone company, was formed. That year, while on his honeymoon, bell introduced the telephone to England and France. The first commercial switchboard was set up in New haven, conn., in 1878, and Bell's first subsidiary, the new England Telephone company, was organized that year. Switchboards were improved by Charles Scribner, with more than 500 inventions. Thomas Cornish, a philadelphia electrician, had a switchboard for eight customers and published a one-page directory in 1878.
14, 1876, bell's attorney filed for a patent. The exact hour was not recorded, but on that same day elisha Gray filed his caveat (intention to invent) for a telephone. Patent Office granted Bell the patent for the "electric speaking telephone" on March. It was the most valuable single patent ever issued, and it opened a new age in communication technology. Bell continued his experiments to improve the telephone's owl quality. By accident, bell plan sent the first sentence, "Watson, come here; I want you, " on March 10, 1876. The first demonstration occurred at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences convention in Boston 2 months later. Bell's display at the Philadelphia centennial Exposition a month later gained more publicity, and Emperor Dom Pedro of Brazil ordered 100 telephones for his country. The telephone, accorded only 18 words in the official catalog of the exposition, suddenly became the "star" attraction.
He conceived the theory of the telephone: an electric current can be made to change intensity precisely as air density varies during sound production. Unlike the telegraph's use of intermittent current, the telephone requires continuous current with varying intensity. That same year he invented a harmonic telegraph, to transmit several messages simultaneously over one wire, and a telephonic-telegraphic receiver. Trying to reproduce the human voice electrically, he became expert with electric wave transmission. Bell supplied the ideas; Thomas Watson made and assembled the equipment. Working with tuned reeds and magnets to synchronize a receiving instrument with a sender, they transmitted a musical note on June 2, 1875. Bell's telephone receiver and transmitter were identical: a thin disk in front of an electromagnet.
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After studying at the University of Edinburgh and University college, london, bell essay became his father's assistant. He taught the deaf to talk by adopting his father's system of visible speech (illustrations of speaking positions of the lips and tongue). In London he studied Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz's experiments with tuning forks and magnets to produce complex sounds. In 1865 Bell made scientific studies of the resonance of the mouth while speaking. In 1870 the bells moved to Brantford, Ontario, canada, to preserve alexander's health. He went to boston in 1871 to teach at Sarah Fuller's School for the deaf, the first such school in the world. He also tutored private students, including Helen Keller.
As professor of vocal physiology and speech at Boston University in 1873, he initiated conventions for teachers of the deaf. Throughout his life he continued to educate the deaf, and he founded the American Association to Promote the teaching of Speech to the deaf. From 1873 to 1876 Bell experimented with a phonautograph, a multiple telegraph, and an electric speaking telegraph (the telephone). Funds came from the fathers of two of his pupils; one of these men, gardiner Hubbard, report had a deaf daughter, mabel, who later became bell's wife. Inventing the telephone, to help deaf children, bell experimented in the summer of 1874 with a human ear and attached bones, a tympanum, magnets, and smoked glass.
Bell founded several organizations to support teaching of the deaf. Science magazine and the national geographic Society. He also worked on air conditioning, an improved strain of sheep (to bear multiple lambs an early iron lung, solar distillation of water, and sonar detection of icebergs. The possibility of flight fascinated Bell. He built tetrahedral kites capableof carrying a human being. He supported Samuel Langley's pioneering experiments in aviation, and helped found the aerial Experiment Association in 1907.he also designed a hydrofoil boat that set the world water-speed record in 1918.
Bell became a united States citizen in 1882. He died at his summer home on Cape Breton Island, nova scotia, on August 2, 1922). Scottish-born American inventor and teacher of the deaf, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) is best known for perfecting the telephone to transmit vocal messages by electricity. The telephone inaugurated a new age in communication technology. Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh. His father, Alexander Melville bell, was an expert in vocal physiology and elocution; his grandfather, Alexander Bell, was an elocution professor.
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Bell's patent was granted on March 7, 1876, and on March 10, the first message transmitted by telephone passed from Bell to watson in their workshop: "Mr. Watson, come here, iwant you!". After a year of refining the new device, watson and Bell, along with Hubbardand Sanders, formed lined the bell Telephone company in 1877. Bell immediately married Mabel Hubbard, daughter of his new partner, and sailed to England to promote his telephone. The phone company grew rapidly, and Bell became a wealthyman. He turned to other interests on his return to the United States in 1879,while also defending his patents (which were upheld in 1888) against numerous lawsuits. With money from the volta Prize, awarded to him in 1880 by the French government, bell established the volta laboratory. Among the new devices he inventedthere were the graphophone for recording sound on wax cylinders or disks; the photophone, for transmitting speech on a beam of light; an audiometer; a telephone probe, used in surgery until the discovery of the x-ray; and an induction balance.
Bell complied, but when he patented one of his telegraph designs in February 1875, he found that Elisha Gray had patented a multiple telegraph two days earlier. Greatly discouraged, bell consulted in Washington with the elderly joseph Henry, who urged Bell to pursue his "germ of a great invention"-speech transmission. Back in Boston, bell and Watson continued to work on the harmonic telegraph, but still with the telephone in mind. By accident on a june day in 1875, an intermittent transmitter produced a steady current and transmitted sound. Bellhad proof of his 1874 idea; he quickly sketched a design for an electric telephone, paper and Watson built. The partners experimented all summer, but failedactually to transmit voice sounds. That fall, bell began to write the patentspecifications, but delayed application; Hubbard finally filed for the patent on February 14, 1876, just hours before Gray appeared at the same patent office to file an intent to patent his telephone design.
him to investigate the transmission of sound over wires. In particular, he experimented with development of the harmonic telegraph -a device that could send multiple messages at thesame time over a single wire. Bell also worked with the possibility of transmitting the human voice, experimenting with vibrating membranes and an actualhuman ear. Bell was backed financially in his investigations by gardiner Hubbard (1822-1897) and Thomas Sanders, fathers of two of his deaf pupils. Early in 1874, bell met Thomas. Watson (1854-1934 a young machinist at aboston electrical shop. Watson became bell's indispensable assistant, bringing to bell's experiments the crucial ingredient that had been lacking-his technical expertise in electrical engineering. Together the two men spent endless hours experimenting. Although Bell formed the basic concept of the telephone-using a varying but unbroken electric current to transmit the varying sound waves of human speech-in the summer of 1874, hubbard insisted that the young inventor focus his efforts on the harmonic telegraph instead.
Bell was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a family of speecheducators. His father, melville bell, had invented. Visible Speech, acode of symbols for all spoken sounds that was used in teaching deaf people to speak. Aleck bell studied at Edinburgh University in 1864 and assisted hisfather at University college, london, from 1868-70. During business these years he became deeply interested in the study of sound and the mechanics of speech, inspired in part by the acoustic experiments of German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894 which gave bell the idea of telegraphing speech. When young Bell's two brothers died of tuberculosis, melville bell took his remaining family to the healthier climate of Canada in 1870. From there, aleckBell journeyed to boston, massachusetts, in 1871 and joined the staff of theBoston School for the deaf.
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Home fun Games Alexander Graham Bell Crossword Game alexander Graham Bell biography- games and worksheets crossword game tips: All the stars represent the first letters of the words. Click and drag to select a group of characters from lighter cells on the board. If they match with any keyword highlighted in the list, the keyword will be removed. To get a hint on a word, first select a word from the list and then click on "Hint" button. Game is won by finding all keywords and lost by reaching the specified max time limit. Made how, inventor biographies, cleveland Abbe to louis Braille, nationality American Gender Male Occupation inventor and educator. Alexander Graham Bell is remembered today thesis as the inventor of the telephone, but he was also an outstanding teacher of the deaf and a prolific inventor ofother devices.