Turgots finance revolution failed. In spite of his political and economic liberalism, he ended up implementing his reforms too hastily and too harshly, which evoked cries of dissent from the aristocracy. He was advised to implement his reforms more slowly and carefully, but a sense of impending doom for both the regime and his own life-In our family we die at fifty, he had said-had spurred him on to reckless, and in some cases despotic, policy-making. Turgot was dismissed by the king in 1776. His predictions were fulfilled; he died in 1781 at fifty-four years of age nearly on the eve of that most illiberal revolution that would consume the regime he tried so hard to rescue (dakin 1965). Early europe and turgot all the philosophes at that time had a roughly similar diagnosis of the political and social problems they faced in France; all shared in admiration for progressive england. But when it came to building a free society at home, there were disagreements. One prominent and early philosophe, montesquieu, for instance, saw too-strong monarchy as the cause of Frances problems (Andreski 1971).
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Bread riots resulted and were suppressed. This caused Turgot to lose much of his popularity (Lodge 1931). Turgot aroused the clergy by favoring toleration of the Protestants and provoked a storm of protest by his six edicts of Jan., 1776. The first four edicts were not of major importance. The fifth abolished guilds, thus ending binding restrictions on work and occupation. The sixth, the most important, struck at the nobles by eliminating the corv? E and proposing taxation of all landholders In his Reflections sur le formation et distri buoon des richesses (1726 he developed an analysis of the law of diminishing returns. Turgots free-market approach was firmly rooted in his theological education and flowed from his faith in God. He initiated reforms intended to deregulate agriculture and industry, encourage free trade and open borders, and establish fairer labor practices. He thought that eliminating such restrictions on the economy would usher in an era of such unprecedented prosperity that the regimes fiscal problems would evaporate (dakin 1965).
He had some ideas I may not agree with, such as mankind always moving towards perfection, how do we know when we are moving the other direction, and who is the judge of what perfection is? He was concerned for the future, not for the immediate present. He was a writer as well as an administrator and he led a school of economic thinkers whose influences were to reappear in the following century. His merits were realized more fully in his death than when he was alive. Although his reforms didnt amount to much paper and encountered much local prejudice, he was acclaimed for them, particularly by the philosophes. In 1774 the comte de maurepas made him comptroller general of finances in his cabinet. Turgots program-no bankruptcy, no increase in taxes, no borrowing, but economy-necessitated stringent reforms. He abolished some sinecures and monopolies, tried to improve the system of farming the taxes, drastically cut government expenses, and redeemed part of the public debt. His edict (1774) restoring free circulation of grain inside France antagonized the grain speculators and was unfortunately followed by a crop failure.
In these biographies he showed that he favored Turgots economic theories. S view concerning the unbounded perfectibility of the human understanding snd the limitless progress of the sciences as? One of the great principles of his philosophy? S Reflections is frequently described as one of the most important general treatises on political economy written before Smiths wealth of Nations and there is little doubt that it was a major influence on Adam Smith (Lodge 1931). Turgots ideas turgot was different than other economist of his time. He was more of a thinker and theorist. He was determined to change the system even though the new one might not literature be welcomed.
He advocated the free-trade and free-competition principles of Vincent de gournay. In Limoges, then one of the poorest provinces of France, he applied some of his theories. He encouraged new agricultural methods, introduced new crops, developed industry, promoted local free trade, abolished compulsory labor for public work, built roads, instituted a modicum of public assistance, and removed some tax abuses (dakin 1965). S influences turgot believed society is a system of parts and each of these parts are connected to each other. Each stage or part sets the conditions for the next stage or part of society. Comte got his ideas of society moving in an evolutionary pattern from Turgot. Condorcet was influenced by turgot? He published vie de m turgot (1786) and vie de voltaire (1789).
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He was full very concerned with the onward march of mankind (Andreski 1971). Turgot was initially educated for a career in the Church. Turgot abandoned his career in the church for the civil Service. He was expected to enter the clergy, but instead felt he report was called to government service. He was appointed Administrator of Limoges and later, secretary of State for the navy.
For a short time, he was also controller of Finance to the king of France (meek 1973). S education, turgot was sent to school in Paris in the college louis-le-Grand, and a rather nice story is told of him there. His pocket-money always seemed to disappear very rapidly, and after investigation it turned out that he spent it all helping the poorer day boys buy their books for classes, which they themselves could not afford. He later attended the college du Plessis, and eventually passed on to the seminary of saint Sulpice for his more theological training (Lodge 1931). Turgot earned honors first at the seminary of saint-Sulpice, and then at the great theological faculty of the University of Paris, the sorbonne. And although he had wide-ranging intellectual interests in history, theology, literature, sociology, and the natural sciences, he is now best known for his brief career in economics (dakin 1965). Turgots most famous writing turgot wrote on economic subjects, notably reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses.
S writings were published during his lifetime. Most showed up in periodicals and letters.?The whole human race, through alternate periods of rest and unrest, of weal and woe, goes on advancing, although at a slow pace, towards greater perfection? S idea that society proceeds naturally and successively was destined to be of great importance, not only for his own works but for the emergence and development of social science in the eighteenth century. It is possible that Turgot got some of these ideas from Montesquieu but it is Turgot who refined them. Turgot viewed society as a slow moving organism. Society moves and changes in an evolutionary pattern.
It is like a biological organism. He also felt society moves from a simple form to a more complex form. An example of this would be farming for food to eventually industrialization of food. Each stage or part of society, turgot felt, is connected to the next stage or part. S famous Philosophical review of the successive advances of the human Mind, turgot sets out to show how the doctrines of Christianity have helped to temper passions, to perfect governments, and to make men better and happier. Turgot was a classical Liberal. He believed that liberty is a mans highest political end, and that religious faith, a free-market economy, and limited government were essential. He believed mankind was heading towards great perfection.
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The turgot family had long been famous, but their early history is somewhat obscure. One story is they were of Scandinavian origin and another account is that the family was originally from Scotland. Either way he came from a well-to-do, upper class, white family. He died at the age of fifty-four years old, of gout, the family disease (Columbia encyclopedia 1993). Turgots background, turgot wrote a number of works. The barmecides, a tragedy? On Luxury, political shredder reflections?; and in between these are forty-eight others, including works on universal history, the origin of languages, love and marriage, political geography, natural theology, morality, economics, and many more (meek 1973). Not many of Turgot?
Advocates become vocal during the reign of page louis xvi. Opposition includes all privileged groups as well as the queen. Turgot refuses a pension and retires to a life of scientific, historical, and literary study. Each individual is the only competent judge of the most advantageous use of his lands and of his labor. It was 1774, and decades of expensive and ill-advised government ventures left the regime of louis the xvi fiscally extended and swaying, once again, on the edge of bankruptcy. Thus was the situation when Anne robert Jacques Turgot, the baron de l Aulne, was appointed Frances Minister of Finance. Turgot was born in Paris on may 10, 1727, to a distinguished Norman family which had served as important royal officials.
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Turgot abandoned his career in the church for civil service. College du Plessis. Seminary of saint summary Sulpice,. S most famous writing. Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses. Comte buys in to turgot? S theory of society as a moving organism-connected in parts.
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Classical Theory Of Turgot Essay, research Paper. Nancee, sociology 3000, m-w-f 12:20-1:18, final Outline, classical Theory of diary Turgot. Setting the scene-turgot as Minister of Finance in France. What was his biographical background? What year was he born? Society as a moving organism. Turgot as a classical liberal.