He has set up a multitude of layers between the original symposium and his written narrative: he heard it fourth-hand (if he is Apollodorus's friend so it comes to us fifth-hand. In addition, the story socrates narrates was told to socrates. Diotima, creating one more layer between the reader and the philosophic path that Socrates traces. No reader can easily judge how much of the text to attribute to Plato, how much to the oral tradition of the symposium, how much to socrates and his fellow-celebrants, how much to diotima. What happens at the symposium, according to Apollodorus, Aristodemus bumps into socrates one day and is surprised to see him freshly bathed and wearing sandals. Socrates missed the first day of partying at Agathon's house, but is on his way there now and persuades Aristodemus to join him, though uninvited. On the way, however, socrates falls into some kind of trance, and Aristodemus finds himself entering alone.
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A discussion on the theme of love took place proposal at this symposium, a discussion which has since become famous. Aristodemus, who was present, reported the conversation to Phoenix and. Phoenix told it to another, unnamed person; meanwhile Apollodorus checked it with Socrates, who was present. The unnamed person has told it to Glaucon (Plato's brother, an interlocutor in the "Republic but has given him an unreliable version and has left him uncertain how long ago the discussion took place. Glaucon has now obtained a better version from Apollodorus, who is thus primed to tell the story again to a friend. From this point on, he will be"ng Aristodemus (172a-174a). The dramatic date of the frame conversation, in which Apollodorus speaks to his unnamed friend, must be between 401 bce (fifteen years after Agathon won his prize) and the time when Socrates was tried and executed in 399 bce. At one level, since this is among the earliest written examples of the genre of philosophical dialogue, plato appears to use the frame narrative to persuade the reader of the authenticity of what follows. He tries hard to achieve verisimilitude - and it hardly works unless people mentir in Athens really did transmit such discussions and took the trouble to search out alternative versions. These opening pages of the "Symposium" are the best description in any ancient Greek source of the ramifications of an oral tradition. At another level, authenticity seems to be the last thing Plato wants.
Although this may be far from its original purpose, the dialogue has been used as a source by historians exploring Athenian social history (particularly the symposium as an institution) and sexual behaviour. The seven participants are: *Phaedrus (speech begins 178a references to the text literature of the "Symposium" are given in Stephanus pagination, the standard reference system for Plato. This numbering system will be found in the margin of nearly all editions and translations. also familiar from "Phaedrus" and other dialogues, his approach here is literary pausanias (speech begins 180c the legal expert *Eryximachus (speech begins 186a a typical physician *Aristophanes (speech begins 189c the famous comic poet seems at first to be played for laughs, but his creation. Rebecca Stanton notes a deliberate blurring of genre boundaries here aristophanes gives a tragic speech, Agathon a comic/parodic one and that Socrates later urges a similar coalescence:. by socrates *Socrates (speech begins 201d familiar to us as Plato's teacher, in this dialogue he retells religious teachings which he attributes to the priestess or wise woman. Diotima of Mantinea *Alcibiades (speech begins 214e reminiscences of his own encounters, amorous or not, with Socrates. The frame narrative, fifteen years ago the poet Agathon hosted a symposium to celebrate victory in his first dramatic competition, the dionysia of 416 bce.
This is very evident in the ending when he discusses the idea that writers of tragedy should be able to write comedies. It was felt that this was a final reference to love; that is, love brings both happiness and sadness to it embrace. As the story ends and Socrates goes to his home and bed. This writer couldnt help but think that Aristodemus was a lover of Socrates and that Socrates enjoyed physical love much more than achieving the love of the forms. The "Symposium " is a philosophical dialogue written by Plato sometime after 385. It is a discussion on the nature of love, taking the form of a group of speeches, both satirical and serious, given by a group of men at a " symposium " or a wine drinking gathering at the house of the tragedian Agathon. The symposium was presumably written around the same time as Plato's "Republic" and "Phaedrus with those two texts, it is often considered one of Plato's literary high points. Plato takes great care to make the setting realistic and the historical online context credible.
It is a concept that has been a part of human nature since at the very least Socrates time. Love exemplifies the longing to define the divine within us and to help other realize their potential, as well (although this is not easy at times ). Love helps us find ourselves and the world we live. If you were to follow diotimas words its like climbing a stair case getting to the top slowly, but surely increasing your understanding of what truly is (the absolutes ) for each riser that you step. I agree with diatima that this experience is ultimately the most meaningful of all the human experiences. This writer was well aware of the sexual overtones that existed throughout this work. Though, most of them involved Socrates in some way. What was most intriguing is that Socrates whole thought process seemed to be changing to be in agreement with diatima.
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She goes on to say that the process of pursuing good is through procreating the desire to be immortal. Going on to say that love ids a resume gateway or a bridge connecting the divine and the mortal. The third part of diotimas dialogue takes place well after the previous two. In this piece she draws a map of the roads immortality and describes two ways to get there through procreation in the body and through the process of soul growth, this was shown through her discussion of mating urges of the animal world (basically dismissing. Socrates is moved by this because it coincides with his thoughts, also Platos. She describes the process as ascending on a staircase at the top is pure essence, absolute beauty that can only be perceived by the mind. She finished with the thought that beauty is what makes life worth living for men.
Socrates himself agrees with diotima by realizing that love is a bridge from the world of becoming to the world of being. Finally an ex-lover of Socrates and an acquaintance of Agathon is asking to join in on the symposium. He is asked (the lover) to stay although drunk. This part of The symposium is extremely homosexual and full of metaphors referring to such. This also leads this writer to believe that Socrates was a feminine homosexual because of two factors: one, socrates uses or creates diatima as his feminine psyche to express deep seeded emotional mentally stressful beliefs; two, he is afraid of Alcibiades statements and asked Agathon. With that this writer would suggest that this duality is consistent with even todays world. That is there is good and bad, love and hate, beauty and ugliness.
With that, as mentioned earlier, it is believed that Socrates was indeed meditating recalling the conversation that manifested from within, through a transcendental experience making Socrates as close to the forms as possible for a mortal. Also, it is believed that Plato chose a woman consciously to add the essence of irony. A woman had taken on Socrates and out thought him. In fact it was mentioned in the dialogue that she taught him (according to socrates) on about love. Thus, the dialogue between diotima and Socrates manifests itself. As they produced their thoughts and conversed, the reader was led to conclude that diotima was at the highest level of enlightenment, at least compared to the members within that particular party.
Diotimas conversation with Socrates seems to take form in three distinct parts. In the first part, she establishes the concept of duality by distinguishing between moral and divine and love is a spirit and a bridge or a messenger between the two. She engages with Socrates challenging his choice of words and shows the connection of spirit, mortal and Gods. She also states that love is the son of poor and plenty, stressing loves dual nature, saying that it springs from need and lack, yet it can motivate people to strive for great achievement. She ties this all together by saying a philosopher, like love, is a mean between wisdom and ignorance. She then concludes by saying that love is a philosopher. In the second part, they both go back and forth eventually agreeing that love is the love of having the good for oneself always.
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The springboard for Platos theory of the forms is the speech of Agathon. The focus of this speech is that of justice, moderation and wisdom. Stating love is the way by which all living things are created or produced. This is something that diotima makes as one of her final points. That is that love is a essay creative force it helps mortals reach their potential both within themselves as well as others. Each speaker introduced a part of love expanding on the last building the foundation for the climax, which takes place through Socrates retelling of a memory he had of a woman named diotima. This writer believes that there was foreknowledge of the topic to be discussed.
It can be removed or implanted. Basically he alludes to a bond or bridge between the two types of love which diotima expands. Aristophanes finally gets rid of his hiccups. He attempts to explain love by introducing a myth in which zeus splits three types of beings, therefore explaining female to female, male to male and female to male love. The suggestion here is that each single person is always in search biography of their other half, thus reuniting to become one soul to reach the forms. Here is the first mention/ recognition of Lesbianism. The view that is stated love is that is the desire for essence/forms a unity to meet heaven.
and produces children. Heavenly love is based on companionship and involves mental and soul oriented pursuits. He places a great deal of emphasis on virtue. He goes on to say that heavenly love is good and only becomes ugly if a lovers motive is exploitation. Pausanias has brought out one of diotimas major points, the idea of duality in love, although he is not as thorough. His overall outlook seems to be mainly homosexual, yet recognizes heterosexual love. He compliments pausanias on his explanation of the dual nature of love and argues that there should be a balance between the two. He elaborates on that by saying both types are required for a peaceful existence; one can not exist with out the other. He uses an analogy that equates love with an ailment.
Yet, he has quite a developed speech, thus basically understanding the concept of the forms although not as apparent beforehand. The first argument was delivered by Phaedrus. He writings states that love is a great Godit inspires courage in which one would die for the other. Also he references both male and female love. This writer viewed his outlook as one of bi-sexuality and his definition was based on physical love. Which he makes the mistake, in diotimas words, by taking one kind of love, and giving it the name of the whole love. Pausanias speech goes beyond that of Phaedrus and introduces the duality of love.
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Plato symposium, essay, research, paper, platos metaphor of the divided line is essentially two worlds; the world of opinion (the physical world or the world of becoming/existence) and the world of knowledge (the world of knowledge or the world of being/essence). This concept is key to the context of The symposium: love. It is important to note that as the speeches evolve throughout this particular work they parallel this concept. Plato has, in this writers opinion, reinforced his theory fuller through the speakers by outlining the journey from the world of becoming (Phaedrus speech ) to the world of being (Diotimas speech). This being so, diotima and, socrates (the forms ) will be the key focus for which all previous speakers will ascend each contributing to the absolute. In the opening this writer found it intriguing that Socrates had a habit of standing still wherever he happens. This suggested two things; one (in the world of the senses ) he had a physical condition such as seizures and knew when they were about occur and did not wish to be ridiculed and two (in the world of intellect) he meditates before speaking. Agathon suggests the latter in conversation with him. Agathon came across as immature by suggesting that he could obtain what knowledge/intellect Socrates had through the senses as well.