63 It is often not possible to trace the direction of borrowing a proverb between languages. This is complicated by the fact that the borrowing may have been through plural languages. In some cases, it is possible to make a strong case for discerning the direction of the borrowing based on an artistic form of the proverb in one language, but a prosaic form in another language. For example, in Ethiopia there is a proverb "Of mothers and water, there is none evil." It is found in Amharic, alaaba language, and Oromo, three languages of Ethiopia: Oromo: Hadhaa fi bishaan, hamaa hin qaban. Amharic: käənnatənna wəha, kəfu yälläm. Alaaba" wiihaa ʔamaataa hiilu yoosebaʔa 64 The Oromo version uses poetic features, such as the initial ha in both clauses with the final -aa in the same word, and both clauses ending with -an.
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Therefore, "many proverbs refer to old measurements, obscure professions, outdated weapons, unknown plants, animals, names, and various other traditional matters." 52 Therefore, it is common that they preserve words that become less common and archaic in book broader society. 53 Proverbs in fire solid form - such as murals, carvings, and glass - can be viewed even after the language of their form is no longer widely understood, such as an Anglo-French proverb in a stained glass window in York. 54 Borrowing and spread edit " The blind leading the blind a saying that has spread across Europe, found in the Upanishads and the bible Proverbs are often and easily translated and transferred from one language into another. "There is nothing so uncertain as the derivation of proverbs, the same proverb being often found in all nations, and it is impossible to assign its paternity." 55 Proverbs are often borrowed across lines of language, religion, and even time. For example, a proverb of the approximate form "No flies enter a mouth that is shut" is currently found in Spain, France, ethiopia, and many countries in between. It is embraced as a true local proverb in many places and should not be excluded in any collection of proverbs because it is shared by the neighbors. However, though it has gone through multiple languages and millennia, the proverb can be traced back to an ancient Babylonian proverb (Pritchard 1958:146). Another example of a widely spread proverb is "A drowning person clutches at frogs foam found in Peshai of Afghanistan 56 and Orma of Kenya, 57 and presumably places in between. Proverbs about one hand clapping are common across Asia, 58 from Dari in Afghanistan 59 to japan. 60 Some studies have been done devoted to the spread of proverbs in certain regions, such as India and her neighbors 61 and Europe. 62 An extreme example of the borrowing and spread of proverbs was the work done to create a corpus of proverbs for Esperanto, where all the proverbs were translated from other languages.
Conservative language edit latin proverb with overdoorway in Netherlands: "no one attacks me with impunity" Because many proverbs are both poetic and traditional, they are often passed down in fixed forms. Though spoken language may change, many proverbs are often preserved in conservative, even archaic, form. In English, for example, "betwixt" is not used by many, but a form of it is still heard (or read) in the proverb "There is many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip." The conservative form preserves the meter and the rhyme. This conservative nature of proverbs can result in archaic words and grammatical structures being preserved in individual proverbs, as has been documented in Amharic, 48 Greek, 49 Nsenga, 50 and Polish. 51 In addition, proverbs may still be used in languages which were once more widely known in a society, but are now no longer so widely known. For example, english speakers use some non-English proverbs that are drawn from languages that used to be widely understood by the educated class,. "C'est la vie" from French and " Carpe diem " from Latin. Proverbs are often handed down through generations.
However, people will often" only a fraction of a proverb to invoke an entire proverb,. "All is fair" instead of "All is fair in love and war and "A rolling stone" for "A rolling stone gathers no moss." The grammar of proverbs is not always the typical grammar of the spoken language, often elements are moved around, to achieve rhyme. 43 Another type of grammatical structure in proverbs is a short dialogue: Shor/Khkas (sw siberia "They asked the camel, 'why is your neck crooked?' The camel laughed roaringly, 'what of me is straight? 44 Armenian: "They asked the wine, 'have you built or destroyed more?' It said, 'i do not know of building; of destroying i know a lot. Tswana: "The thukhui jackal said, 'i can run fast.' but the sands said, 'we are wide. (Botswana) 46 Bamana: Speech, what made you good?' 'the way i am said Speech. 'What made you bad?' 'the way i am said Speech." (Mali) 47 "The cobbler should stick to his last" in German. It is also an old proverb in English, but now last is no longer known to many.
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Most see the proverb as promoting store teamwork. Others understand it to mean that an argument requires two people. 39 In an extreme example, one researcher working in Ghana found that for a single akan proverb, twelve different interpretations were given. 40 Children will sometimes interpret proverbs in a literal sense, not yet knowing how to understand the conventionalized metaphor. Interpretation of proverbs is also affected by injuries and diseases of the brain, "A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation." 41 features edit Grammatical structures edit Proverbs in various languages are found with a wide variety of grammatical structures.
42 In English, for example, we find the following structures (in addition to others Imperative, negative - don't dissertation beat a dead horse. Imperative, positive - look before you leap. Parallel phrases - garbage in, garbage out. Rhetorical question - is the pope catholic? Declarative sentence - birds of a feather flock together.
Lewis' created proverb about a lobster in a pot, from the Chronicles of Narnia, has also gained currency. 24 In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have become proverbs in real societies. In a fictional story set in a real society, the movie forrest Gump introduced "Life is like a box of chocolates" into broad society. 25 In at least one case, at appears that a proverb deliberately created by one writer has been naively picked up and used by another who assumed it to be an established Chinese proverb, ford Madox Ford having picked up a proverb from Ernest Bramah. 28 Though many proverbs are ancient, they were all newly created at some point by somebody. Sometimes it is easy to detect that a proverb is newly coined by a reference to something recent, such as the haitian proverb "The fish that is being microwaved doesn't fear the lightning".
29 Similarly, there is a recent Maltese proverb, wil-muturi, ferh u duluri "Women and motorcycles are joys and griefs the proverb is clearly new, but still formed as a traditional style couplet with rhyme. 30 Also, there is a proverb in the kafa language of Ethiopia that refers to the forced military conscription of the 1980s, ".the one who hid himself lived to have children." 31 a mongolian proverb also shows evidence of recent origin, "A beggar who sits. "The proverb has since been used in other contexts to prompt quick action." 33 over 1,400 new English proverbs are said to have been coined and gained currency in the 20th century. 34 This process of creating proverbs is always ongoing, so that possible new proverbs are being created constantly. Those sayings that are adopted and used by an adequate number of people become proverbs in that society. 35 36 Interpretations edit Interpreting proverbs is often complex, but is best done in a context. 37 Interpreting proverbs from other cultures is much more difficult than interpreting proverbs in one's own culture. Even within English-speaking cultures, there is difference of opinion on how to interpret the proverb " A rolling stone gathers no moss." Some see it as condemning a person that keeps moving, seeing moss as a positive thing, such as profit; others see the proverb. 38 Similarly, among Tajik speakers, the proverb "One hand cannot clap" has two significantly different interpretations.
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comes from the end of entry a story. Proverbs come from a variety of sources. Some are, indeed, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by confucius, plato, baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry, 18 stories, 19 songs, commercials, advertisements, movies, literature, etc. 20 A number of the well known sayings of Jesus, Shakespeare, and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, and many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are also based on stories, often the end of a story. For summary example, the proverb " Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat. 21 Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such. Tolkien, 22 23 and some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society, such as the bumper sticker pictured below.
10 The changing of the definition of "proverb" is also first noted in Turkish. 11 In other languages and cultures, the definition of "proverb" also differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, " aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones". 12 Among the bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate "proverb ere, ivbe, and itan. The first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, and the third was "linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse". 13 Among the balochi of pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for "proverbs with background stories". 14 There are also language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label "proverb riddles". Examples edit see also: List of proverbial phrases sources edit "Who will bell the cat?
in a metaphorical, fixed, and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation". 5, norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, cliches, etc. 6, prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other, closely related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech,. Proverbial phrases, wellerisms, maxims,"tions, and proverbial comparisons." 7, based on Persian proverbs, zolfaghari and Ameri propose the following definition: "A proverb is a short sentence, which is well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony. 8 There are many sayings in English that are commonly referred to as "proverbs such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, however, rejects including such sayings among truly proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically 'no! 9 The definition of "proverb" has also changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled "a yorkshire proverb" in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, "as throng as Throp's wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth".
1, in his list of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, paczolay listed 11 that are from the bible. 2, however, almost every culture has examples of its own unique proverbs. Contents, definitions edit, defining a "proverb" is a difficult task. Proverb scholars often". Archer taylor 's classic "The definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking. An supermarket incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial". 3, another common definition is from, lord John Russell (c.
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For other uses, see, proverb (disambiguation). A proverb (from, latin : proverbium ) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly told and repeated, that expresses a truth professional citation needed based on common sense or experience. They are often metaphorical. Proverbs fall into the category of formulaic language and form a folklore genre, proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language. Both the bible (including, but not limited to the. Book of Proverbs ) and medieval Latin (aided by the work. Erasmus ) have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe. Mieder has concluded that cultures that treat the bible as their "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the bible".