This is contradicted by the written evidence of missionaries on the upper Congo. The baptist mber wrote that Stanley had peacefully established the trading station that would become kinshasa 'by dint of constant, daily exercise of his tact and influence over the people. Mr Stanley had succeeded in planting his station at Stanley pool without a fight.' 32 In later years, Stanley would write that the most vexing part of his duties was not the work itself but was keeping order in the ill-assorted collection of Belgian and. "Almost all of them he wrote, "clamoured for expenses of all kinds, which included. Wine, tobacco, cigars, clothes, shoes, board and lodging, and certain nameless extravagances" (by which he meant attractive slaves to warm their beds). At one stage, stanley returned to europe, only to be sent straight back by leopold, who promised him an outstanding assistant: Chinese gordon, who did not in fact take up leopold's offer but chose instead to go to meet his fate at Khartoum. It had shocked Stanley that Gordon had been considered, since he wished to initiate war on the Arab slave traders on the upper Congo, before leopold had sufficient guns and men safely to attempt this. 33 "It is indispensable instructed leopold, "that you should purchase for the comité d'Études (i.e., leopold himself) as much land as you can obtain." Stanley did not do so, though shortly before leaving the congo for good, he had witnessed an Arab massacre of hundreds.
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In October 1882, leopold wrote angrily to Strauch: 'The terms of the treaties Stanley has made with native chiefs do not satisfy. There must at least be an added article to the effect that they delegate to us their sovereign rights. The treaties must be as the brief as possible and in a couple of articles must grant us everything.' 30 Tim jeal has described how a dissatisfied leopold destroyed as many of Stanley's early treaties as he could get his hands on, sidelined him. Jeal found one previously unknown original Stanley treaty in Brussels and"d from this and from the only other surviving original treaty, showing that Stanley had not claimed the land from the chiefs, but had made rental agreements with them, paid for with goods, giving. 5 :282-284 Because leopold never trusted Stanley to deliver to him his own private state on the congo, he would not send him back there as governor, which Stanley had expected to happen on leaving in 1885. Before that, Stanley had written to the king that no belgian officer was entitled to treat the congolese 'as though they were conquered subjects. This is all wrong. They are subjects - but it is we who are simply tenants.' 31 For all his social shortcomings in European society, he was undoubtedly the right man for building trading stations and for completing the programme of road building. Within three years, his capacity for hard work, had resulted in the presence henry morton Stanley, 1890 of steamships on the upper Congo. He had also outwitted he French Empire-builder pierre savorgnan de Brazza and claimed the best sites on the congo for trading stations. It has been asserted without citations, that he showed skill at playing one social group off against another, and was ruthless in his use of modern weaponry to kill opponents while opening the route to the Upper Congo.
However, leopold persisted and eventually Stanley gave. Stanley as leopold's agent edit Stanley, much more familiar with the rigours of the African climate and the complexities of local politics than leopold, who died in 1909 without ever setting foot in the congo, persuaded his patron that the first step should be the. Leopold agreed, and in deepest secrecy, stanley signed a five-year contract at a salary of 1,000 a year and set off to zanzibar under an assumed name. To avoid discovery, materials and workers were shipped in by various roundabout routes, and communications between Stanley and leopold were entrusted to colonel Maximilien Strauch. 28 In time Stanley gained glimmerings of the magnitude of leopold's ambition. Before Stanley arrived on the congo, he had been book told that the purpose of his mission was to construct a series of trading stations in order to open the congo to international trade, but, in fact, leopold secretly meant to carve out an entire nation. When leopold admitted what he really had in mind, he was explicit: "It is a question of creating a new State, as big as possible, and of running. It is clearly understood that in this project there is no question of granting the slightest political power to the negros. That would be absurd." 29 When Colonel Strauch put the king's plan to Stanley, he was shocked and replied that creating a state in this way would be 'madness' and told the king: 'On the contrary, they the congolese will retain their own tribal chiefs.
In Stanley's Through the dark continent (1878) (in which he coined the term "Dark continent" for Africa stanley said that his expedition had numbered 356, 23 the exaggeration detracting from his achievement. Stanley attributed his success to his leading African porters, saying that his success was "all due to the pluck and intrinsic goodness of 20 men. Take the 20 out and I could not have proceeded beyond a few days' journey". 25 Professor James Newman has written that "establishing the connection between the lualaba and Congo rivers and locating the source of the victoria nile" justified him (Newman) in stating that: "In terms of exploration and discovery as defined in nineteenth-century europe, he (Stanley) clearly stands. Stanley in 1884 main articles: Colonization of the congo plan and Congo Free state Stanley was approached by king leopold ii of Belgium, the ambitious Belgian monarch who had organized a private holding company in 1876 disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association, which. Soon after Stanley returned from the congo, leopold ii tried to recruit salon him. Stanley, still hopeful for British backing, brushed him off.
7 :301 It was therefore essential that Stanley should trace the course of the lualaba downstream (northward) from nyangwe, the point where livingstone had left it in July 1871. 21 Between november 1876 and August 1877, Stanley and his men navigated the lualaba up to and beyond the point where it turned sharply westward, away from the nile, identifying itself as the congo river. 7 :315 having succeeded with this second objective, they then traced the river to the sea. During this expedition, Stanley used sectional boats and dug-out canoes to pass the large cataracts that separated the congo into distinct tracts. These boats were transported around the rapids before being rebuilt to travel on the next section of river. In passing the rapids many of his men were drowned, including his last white colleague, frank pocock. Stanley and his men reached the portuguese outpost of Boma, around 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the mouth of the congo river on the Atlantic Ocean, after 999 days on Muster lists and Stanley's diary (12 november 1874) show that he started with 228 people 5 :163.
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The phrase is first"d in a summary of Stanley's letters published by The new York times on Stanley biographer Tim jeal argued that the explorer invented it afterwards to help raise his standing because of "insecurity about his background". 5 :117 The herald 's own first account of the meeting, published, reports: 18 Preserving a calmness of exterior before the Arabs which was hard to simulate as he reached the group,. Stanley said: "Doctor livingstone, i presume?" A development smile lit up the features of the pale white man as he answered: "Yes, and I feel thankful that i am here to welcome you." 19 Stanley joined livingstone in exploring the region, finding that there was. On his return, he wrote a book about his experiences: How i found livingstone; travels, adventures, and discoveries in Central Africa. Mapping the central African lakes and navigating the congo river edit main article: Henry morton Stanley's first trans-Africa exploration Henry m stanley with the officers of the Advance column, cairo, 1890.
From the left:. Thomas heazle parke, robert. Stairs, and Arthur. Jephson In 1874, the new York herald and Britain's daily telegraph financed Stanley on another expedition to Africa. His objective was nothing less than to complete the exploration and mapping of the central African lakes and rivers, in the process circumnavigating lakes Victoria and Tanganyika and locating the source of the nile. Between 18tanley succeeded in the first part of his objective, establishing that lake victoria had only a single outlet the one located by john Hanning Speke on If this was not the nile's source, then the massive northward flowing river called by livingstone, the lualaba.
An assignment to report on the Spanish civil War followed. Finding david livingstone edit "Dr. Livingstone, i presume?", an illustration from Stanley's 1872 book how i found livingstone In 1869 Stanley received instructions to undertake a roving commission in the middle east, which was to include the relief. David livingstone, of whom little had been heard since his departure for Africa in 1866 to search for the source of the nile. 2 Stanley travelled to zanzibar in March 1871, later claiming that he outfitted an expedition with 192 porters. In his first dispatch to the new York herald, however, he stated that his expedition numbered only 111.
This was in line with figures in his diaries. Bennett, publisher of the new York herald and funder of the expedition, had delayed sending to Stanley the money he had promised, so Stanley borrowed money from the United States Consul. 5 :9394 During the 700-mile (1,100 km) expedition through the tropical forest, his thoroughbred stallion died within a few days after a bite from a tsetse fly, many of his porters deserted, and the rest were decimated by tropical diseases. Stanley found livingstone on 10 november 1871 in Ujiji, near lake tanganyika in present-day tanzania. He may have greeted him with the now-famous line, "Doctor livingstone, i presume?" It may also have been a fabrication, as Stanley tore out of his diary the pages relating to the encounter. Neither man mentioned it in any of the letters they wrote at this time. 5 livingstone's account of the encounter does not mention these words.
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He became a record keeper on board the uss minnesota, which led him into freelance journalism. Stanley and a junior colleague jumped ship on 10 February 1865 in Portsmouth, new Hampshire, in search of greater adventures. 11 :6365 Stanley was possibly the only man to serve in the confederate Army, the Union Army, and the Union navy. 14 journalist edit following the civil War, Stanley became a journalist in the days of frontier expansion in the American West. He reviews then organised an expedition to the Ottoman Empire that ended catastrophically when he was imprisoned. He eventually talked his way out of jail and received restitution for damaged expedition equipment. 11 :7173 In 1867 Stanley offered his services to james Gordon Bennett. Of the new York herald as a special correspondent with the British expeditionary force sent against Tewodros ii of Ethiopia, and Stanley was the first to report the fall of Magdala in 1868.
8 Out of admiration, john took stanley's name. Later, he wrote that his adoptive parent died two years after their meeting, but in fact the elder Stanley did not die until 1878. 9 This and other discrepancies led John bierman to argue that no adoption took place. 10 :27-28 Tim jeal goes further, and, in Chapter Two of his biography, subjects Stanley's account in his posthumously published Autobiography to detailed analysis. Because Stanley got so many basic facts wrong about his 'adoptive' family, jeal concludes that it is very unlikely that he ever met rich Henry hope Stanley, and that an ordinary grocer, james Speake, was Rowlands' true benefactor until his (Speake's) sudden death in October. 34-41 Stanley reluctantly joined 11 :50 in the American civil War, first enrolling in the confederate States Army 's 6th Arkansas Infantry regiment 12 and fighting in the battle of Shiloh in 1862. 13 After being taken prisoner at Shiloh, he was recruited at Camp douglas, Illinois, by its commander Colonel James. Mulligan as a " Galvanized Yankee." he joined the Union Army on but was discharged 18 days later because of severe illness. 11 :61 After recovering, he served on several merchant ships before joining the us navy in July 1864.
supervision resulted in his being frequently abused by older boys. Historian Robert Aldrich has alleged that the headmaster of the workhouse raped or sexually assaulted Rowlands, and that the older Rowlands was "incontrovertibly bisexual". 6, when Rowlands was ten, his mother and two half-siblings stayed for a short while in this workhouse, but he did not recognize them until the headmaster told him who they were. 7, new country, new name edit rowlands immigrated to the United States in 1859 at age. He disembarked at New Orleans and, according to his own declarations, became friends by accident with Henry hope Stanley, a wealthy trader. He saw Stanley sitting on a chair outside his store and asked him if he had any job openings. He did so in the British style: "do you need a boy, sir?" The childless man had indeed been wishing he had a son, and the inquiry led to a job and a close relationship between them.
Contents, early life edit, portrait of a young Henry morton Stanley.1870's. Henry Stanley was born in 1841. John Rowlands in, denbigh, denbighshire, wales. His mother Elizabeth Parry father's was 18 years old at the time of his birth. She abandoned him as a very young baby and cut off all communication. Stanley never knew his father, who died within a few weeks of his birth. There is some doubt as to his true parentage. 4, as his parents were unmarried, his birth certificate describes him as a bastard, and the stigma of illegitimacy weighed heavily upon him all his life. 5 :1719, 356, the boy john was given his father's surname of Rowlands and brought up by his maternal grandfather Moses Parry, a once-prosperous butcher who was living in reduced circumstances.
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Sir Henry morton Stanley, gCB (born, john Rowlands ; ) was a welsh 1 2 journalist and with explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer. Upon finding livingstone, stanley reportedly asked, "Dr. Livingstone, i presume?" Stanley is also known for his search for the source of the. Nile, his pioneering work later enabling the plundering of the. Congo basin region by king, leopold ii of Belgium, and his command of the. Emin Pasha relief Expedition. He was knighted in 1899.