53 54 In 2006 the hiaa's successor organization, America's health Insurance Plans (ahip issued another set of reform proposals. 55 In January 2007 Rep. (d-mi) has introduced The United States National health Care Act (HR 676) in the house of Representatives. As of October 2008, hr 676 has 93 co-sponsors. 56 Also in January 2007, senator Ron Wyden introduced the healthy Americans Act (S. 334) in the senate. As of October 2008,.
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It was undertaken in an effort to ensure the quality of care of all patients by preserving the integrity of the processes that occur in the health care industry. 48 Standardizing the nature of health care institutions in this manner proved rather provocative. In fact, many interest groups, including the American Medical Association (AMA) and the pharmaceutical industry came out vehemently against the congressional bill. Basically, providing emergency medical care to anyone, regardless of health insurance status, as well as the right of a patient to hold their health plan accountable for any and all harm done proved to be the biggest stumbling blocks for this bill. 48 As a result of this intense opposition, the patients' bill of Rights initiative eventually failed to pass Congress in 2002. As president, bush signed into law the medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act which included a prescription drug plan for elderly and disabled Americans. 49 During the 2004 presidential election, both the george bush and John Kerry campaigns offered health care proposals. Bush's proposals for expanding health care coverage were more modest than those advanced by senator Kerry. Several estimates were made prime comparing the cost and impact of the bush and Kerry proposals. While the estimates varied, they all indicated that the increase in coverage and the funding requirements of the bush plan would both be lower than those of the more comprehensive kerry plan.
Every citizen or permanent resident would thus be guaranteed medical care. The bill faced withering criticism by republicans, led by william Kristol, who communicated his concern that a democratic health care bill would "revive the reputation. Democrats as the generous protector of middle-class interests. And it will at the same time strike a punishing blow against Republican claims to defend the middle class by restraining government." 43 The bill was not enacted into law. The "Health Security Express a cross-country tour by multiple buses carrying supporters of President Clinton's national health care reform, started at the end of July 1994. During each stop, the bus riders would talk about their personal experiences, health care disasters and why they felt it was important for all Americans to have health insurance. 44 Bush era debates edit In 2000 the health Insurance Association of America (hiaa) partnered with Families usa and the American Hospital Association (AHA) on a "strange bedfellows" proposal intended to seek common ground in expanding coverage for the uninsured. In 2001, a patients' bill of Rights was debated in Congress, which would have provided patients with an explicit diary list of rights concerning their health care. This initiative was essentially taking some of ideas found in the consumers' bill of Rights and applying it to the field of health care.
37 In December 1977, President Carter told Kennedy his bill must be changed to preserve a large role for private insurance companies, minimize federal spending (precluding payroll tax financing and be phased-in so not to interfere with balancing the federal budget. 37 38 Kennedy and organized labor compromised and made the requested changes, but broke with Carter in July 1978 when he would not commit to pursuing a single bill with a fixed schedule for phasing-in comprehensive coverage. 37, kennedy proposed a new bipartisan universal national health insurance bill—choice of competing federally-regulated private health insurance plans with no cost sharing financed by income-based premiums via an employer mandate gps and individual mandate, replacement of Medicaid by government payment of premiums to private insurers, and. 39, carter proposed more limited health insurance reform—an employer mandate to provide catastrophic private health insurance plus coverage without cost sharing for pregnant women and infants, federalization of Medicaid with extension to the very poor without dependent minor children, and enhancement of Medicare by adding. 39 In november 1979, long led a bipartisan conservative majority of his Senate finance committee to support an employer mandate to provide catastrophic-only private health insurance and enhancement of Medicare by adding catastrophic coverage, but abandoned efforts in may 1980 due to budget constraints. S edit The consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (cobra) amended the Employee retirement Income security Act of 1974 (erisa) to give some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment. Clinton initiative edit see also: health Security Express health care reform was a major concern of the bill Clinton administration headed up by first Lady hillary Clinton. The 1993 Clinton health care plan included mandatory enrollment in a health insurance plan, subsidies to guarantee affordability across all income ranges, and the establishment of health alliances in each state.
27 In April 1974, kennedy and Mills introduced a bill for near-universal national health insurance with benefits identical to the expanded Nixon plan—but with mandatory participation by employers and employees through payroll taxes and with lower cost sharing—both plans were criticized by labor, consumer, and. 27 In August 1974, after Nixon's resignation and President Gerald Ford 's call for health insurance reform, mills tried to advance a compromise based on Nixon's plan—but with mandatory participation by employers and employees through premiums to private health insurance companies and catastrophic health insurance. In December 1974, mills resigned as chairman of the ways and means Committee and was succeeded by representative al Ullman ( d - or who opposed payroll tax and general federal revenue financing of national health insurance. 31 In January 1975, in the midst of the worst recession in the four decades since the Great Depression, ford said he would veto any health insurance reform, 32 and Kennedy returned to sponsoring his original universal national health insurance bill. 33 In April 1975, with one third of its sponsors gone after the november 1974 election, 34 the ama replaced its "Medicredit" plan with an employer mandate proposal similar to nixon's 1974 plan. 35 In January 1976, ford proposed adding catastrophic coverage to medicare, offset by increased cost sharing. 36 In April 1976, democratic presidential candidate jimmy carter proposed health care reform that included key features of Kennedy's universal national health insurance bill.
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17 In February 1970, representative martha Griffiths ( d - mi ) introduced a national health insurance bill—without any cost sharing —developed with the aflcio. 18 In April 1970, senator Jacob javits ( r - ny ) introduced a bill to extend Medicare to all—retaining existing Medicare cost sharing and coverage limits—developed after consultation with governor Nelson Rockefeller ( r - ny ) and former Johnson administration hew secretary wilbur. 19 In August 1970, senator Ted Kennedy ( d - ma ) introduced a bipartisan national health insurance bill—without any cost sharing—developed with the committee for National health Insurance founded by United Auto workers (UAW) president Walter reuther, with a corresponding bill introduced in the. 20 In September 1970, the senate labor and Public Welfare committee held the first congressional hearings in twenty years on national health insurance. 21 In January 1971, kennedy began a decade as chairman of the health subcommittee of the senate labor and Public Welfare committee, and introduced a reconciled bipartisan KennedyGriffiths bill proposing universal national health insurance. 22 In February 1971, President Richard Nixon proposed more limited health insurance reform—an employer mandate to offer private health insurance if employees volunteered to pay 25 percent of premiums, federalization earthquake of Medicaid for the poor with dependent minor children, and support for health maintenance organizations.
22 hearings on national health insurance were held by the house ways and means Committee and the senate finance committee in 1971, but no bill had the support of committee chairmen Representative wilbur Mills ( d - ar ) or Senator Russell Long (. 22 In October 1972, nixon signed the social Security Amendments of 1972 extending Medicare to those under 65 who have been severely disabled for over two years or have end stage renal disease (esrd and gradually raising the medicare part A payroll tax from.1. 23 In november 1972, nixon won re-election in a landslide over the only democratic presidential nominee ever not endorsed by the aflcio, senator george Mcgovern ( d - sd 24 who was a cosponsor of the kennedy-Griffiths bill, but did not make national health insurance. 25 In October 1973, long and Senator Abraham Ribicoff ( d - ct ) introduced a bipartisan bill for catastrophic health insurance coverage for workers financed by payroll taxes and for Medicare beneficiaries, and federalization of Medicaid with extension to the poor without dependent minor. 26 In February 1974, nixon proposed more comprehensive health insurance reform—an employer mandate to offer private health insurance if employees volunteered to pay 25 percent of premiums, replacement of Medicaid by state-run health insurance plans available to all with income-based premiums and cost sharing, and.
This was a beginning of the third-party paying system that began to replace direct out-of-pocket payments. Following the world war, President Harry Truman called for universal health care as a part of his fair deal in 1949 but strong opposition stopped that part of the fair deal. 14 15 However, in 1946 the national Mental health Act was passed, as was the hospital Survey and Construction Act, or Hill-Burton Act. In 1951 the irs declared group premiums paid by employers as a tax-deductible business expense, 6 which solidified the third-party insurance companies' place as primary providers of access to health care in the United States. 1960s1980s edit 1960s edit In the civil Rights era of the 1960s and early 1970s, public opinion shifted towards the problem of the uninsured, especially the elderly. Since care for the elderly would someday affect everyone, supporters of health care reform were able to avoid the worst fears of "socialized medicine which was considered a dirty word for its association with communism.
6 After Lyndon. Johnson was elected president in 1964, the stage was set for the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. 16 Johnson's plan was not without opposition, however. "Opponents, especially the ama and insurance companies, opposed the johnson administration's proposal on the grounds that it was compulsory, it represented socialized medicine, it would reduce the quality of care, and it was 'un-American. 6 These views notwithstanding, the medicare program was established by legislation signed into law on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon. Medicare is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are either age 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. 1970s edit In 1970, three proposals for single-payer universal national health insurance financed by payroll taxes and general federal revenues were introduced in the.
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Fear of organized medicine's opposition to universal health care became standard for decades after the 1930s. 11 During this time, individual hospitals began summary offering their own insurance programs, the first of which became Blue cross. 12 Groups of hospitals as well as physician groups (i.e. Blue shield) soon began selling group health insurance policies to employers, who then offered them to their employees and collected premiums. In the 1940s Congress passed legislation that supported the new third-party insurers. During World War ii, henry kaiser used an arrangement in which doctors bypassed traditional fee-for-care and were contracted to meet all the medical needs for his employees on construction projects up and down the west coast. 13 After the war ended, he opened the plan up to the public as a non-profit organization under the name kaiser Permanente. During World War ii, the federal government introduced wages and price resumes controls. In an effort to continue attracting and retaining employees without violating those controls, employers offered and sponsored health insurance to employees in lieu of gross pay.
9 These late-19th-century and early-20th-century sickness insurance schemes were generally inexpensive for workers: their small scale and local administration kept overhead low, and because the people who purchased insurance were all employees of the same company, that prevented people who were already ill from buying. 9 The presence of employer-based sickness funds may have contributed to why the idea of government-based insurance did not take hold in the United States at the same time that the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe was moving toward paper socialized schemes like the. 9 Thus, at the beginning of the 20th century, americans were used to associating insurance with employers, which paved the way for the beginning of third-party health insurance in the 1930s. 1930s1950s edit letter from President Harry Truman defending his fair deal proposal for a national compulsory health insurance program. 10 With the Great Depression, more and more people could not afford medical services. In 1933, Franklin. Roosevelt asked Isidore falk and Edgar Sydenstricter to help draft provisions to roosevelt's pending Social Security legislation to include publicly funded health care programs. These reforms were attacked by the American Medical Association as well as state and local affiliates of the ama as "compulsory health insurance." roosevelt ended up removing the health care provisions from the bill in 1935.
replacement of some lost wages if a worker became ill. It did not, however, cover spouses or dependents. Efforts to achieve universal coverage began with progressive health care reformers who supported Theodore roosevelt for President in 1912, though he was defeated. 7 Progressives campaigned unsuccessfully for sickness insurance guaranteed by the states. 8 a unique american history of decentralization in government, limited government, and a tradition of classical liberalism are all possible explanations for the suspicion around the idea of compulsory government-run insurance. 6 The American Medical Association (AMA) was also deeply and vocally opposed to the idea, 8 which it labeled " socialized medicine ". In addition, many urban us workers already had access to sickness insurance through employer-based sickness funds. Early industrial sickness insurance purchased through employers was one influential economic origin of the current American health care system.
1 2, after the civil War, the federal government established the first system of medical care in the south, known as the. The government constructed 40 hospitals, employed over 120 physicians, and treated well over one million sick and dying former slaves. The hospitals were short lived, lasting from 1865 to 1870. Freedmen's Hospital in Washington,. Remained in operation until the late nineteenth century, when it became part. 3, the next major initiative came in the. New deal legislation gps of the 1930s, in the context of the. 4 1900s1920s edit, in the first 1015 years of the 20th century. Progressivism was influencing both Europe and the United States.
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The history of health care reform in the United States has spanned many years with health care reform having been the subject of political debate since the early part of the 20th century. Recent reforms remain an active political issue. Alternative reform proposals were offered by both of the major candidates in the 20 presidential elections. Contents, federal health care proposals edit 19th century edit, one of the earliest health care proposals at the federal level was the 1854. Bill for the benefit of the Indigent Insane, which would have established asylums for the indigent insane, as well as the blind and deaf, via federal land grants to supermarket the states. This bill was proposed by activist. Dorothea dix and passed both houses of Congress, but was vetoed by president. Pierce argued that the federal government should not commit itself to social welfare, which he stated was the responsibility of the states.