Above this bold object, the smaller island of Bute, comparatively flat in its appearance, extends itself almost to the entrance of the Clyde, exhibiting the fine seat of mount Stuart, belonging to its Marquis. The tiviot and the Tweed may properly be called the boundary rivers between England and Scotland, though they certainly appertain more strongly to the latter country; nor does the tiviot indeed pass at all through England. Its source is in the wild hills near the centre of Roxburghshire, where it flows almost northward to hawick, inclining afterwards more towards the east, met by the jed and the kale, till it joins the Tweed near Kelso. The short course of this rapid stream, after its exit from the hills, is through the beautiful and highly-romantic district of tiviotdale, profusely adorned with seats, and well sprinkled with villages. The town of Hawick, on the north road, occupies a charming spot over the river at the entrance of that district; and Jedburgh, with its ancient abbey, lies on the hills, about two miles above its centre, where the bridge of Ancram is built over. The junction of the tiviot with the Tweed, a little southward of Kelso, forms a charming scene; and Fleurs, the elevated seat of the duke of Roxburgh, no where appears to so much advantage as from the high bank above the point of their union. The Tweed finds its distant origin in the mountaious district which unites the counties of Ayr, dumfries, and peebles, in Scotland, somewhat northward of the celebrated springs of Moffat; its course is north-east to peebles, where it makes a compass to the south-east, receiving the.
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At Hamilton, it passes through the princely but too level territory, surrounding the duke of first Hamiltons palace; alter which it again engulfs itself in a hollow between vast rocks cloathed with brushwood, as it sweeps furiously round the eminence, on which the ruins of Bothwell. Emerging from these barriers, the Clvde rolls proudly to Glasgow, which magnificent and flourishing city with its University, lies spread along the northern bank of that river, and the eminences which overlook it, presenting a grand assemblage of objects to the wondering traveller. Two magnificent stone bridges cross the Clyde at this city; another also has been lately built at Hamilton, and near Lanerk one, created by the taste and spirit of four neighbouring great landed proprietors, exhibits a beautiful structure. Navigation now adds its consequence to the Clyde, as, crowded with vessels and gradually widening, it divides the counties of Dumbarton and Rentrew, transporting all the riches of Glasgow to the sea; to which the manufactures of the flourishing town of paisley are added. Argyleshire, intersected with its vast arms of the sea, now forms the north-western boundary of the Clyde, one of which called Loch Long, descends into that river from the central part of the county, separated only by a small neck of land, from the middle. There the military road divides into two branches, one of which leads northward along the upper parts of Loch Lomond to Crienlarick, where it meets the great road from Tyndrum to killin and taymouth; the other, crossing to loch Long, passes round its head, and. Loch Long is environed with lofty mountains about Arracher, where the duke of Argyle has converted the seat of the laird of Mac-Farlane into an excellent inn, delightfully situated, almost on the margin of the water. It joins the Clyde just below the point where a smaller arm of the sea, called Loch Gore, descends through a narrow biography inlet, and where a ferry is established between the village of Row and Rosineath, a seat of the duke of Argyle. The kyle, a narrow strait from which two small arms of the sea penetrate into Argyleshire, separates that county from the Isle of Bute, and communicates with the Clyde, near its mouth. An immense bay then is formed, between the mull of Cantire, at the extremity of the Argyleshire coast, and the opposite promontory of Kirkholm point in Galloway, starting forth from Loch ryan, and being the perigonus sinus of the romans. The whole coast of Ayrshire forms the eastern side of this great gulph, the centre of which is occupied by the rocky and mountainous Isle of Arran, whose heights appear proudly exalted over the intervening level.
In the centre of this plain, a lofty rock rises abruptly, crowned with the palace and church of Stirling, from which that town descends to type the east in a long and steep street. Just where the forth becomes increased by the tide, the little stream of the carron descends into it, tinged with the produce of its iron-works, and the great canal from the Clyde joins it, transporting the rich manufactures of paisley and Glasgow, and the trade. The forges of Borrostoness, somewhat below the fine remains of Linlithgow Palace, front the ivyed walls of Culross Abbey, on the opposite side of the expanded basin, a little below the point where the avon descends from the south into the forth, which beneath Inverkeithing. The Clyde finds its source in the great hills which bound Lanerkshire towards the south, between Elvan foot and Moffatt, on the high road from Carlisle to Glasgow. Its course, with various windings, is generally north-west to hamilton and Glasgow, where it receives the tide, entering soon afterwards its Firth, which pursues the same direction till it meets a considerable arm of the sea called Loch Long, united with which it turns. The Clyde has several considerable branches, the principal of which are The douglas Water from the south-west, the calder from the south-east, the avon from the south-west, and the carl flowing by paisley from the south, united with the Grief of Renfrewshire, neither of which. The Clvde is one of the finest rivers in Scotland, rapid in its origin, and precipitating itself in three picturesque and tremendous falls near Lanerk, the two first of which, called Cora lyn ami boniton Lyn, are beautifully encompassed by the grounds and plantations laid.
They are both rapid rivers, though short in their course, the south Esk flowing eastward, beneath the high eminence crowned with the spires of Brechin, and under the well-planted territory of Kinnaird, with its superb mansion, and expanding into a with large basin at last. The course of the north Esk is through a wilder district, as it divides the counties of Angus and Kincardine, inclining to the south-east, and falling into the sea a few miles north of Montrose. The forth is perhaps the most important river of any in Scotland, from the length of its course, the profusion of its commerce, and its proximity to the capital. Its proper rise is in the wild tract of mountains in the western highlands, at the back of the great Ben-Lomond, towards the north-west extremity of Stirlingshire. A little before it reaches Stirling it is joined by the teith from the north-west, one branch of which forms Loch Katyern and Loch Vanacher, and the other the lochs of doine, voille, and Lubnich, before they meet near Callander, and descend together to doune;. The course of these united streams, which altogether form the forth, is towards the south-east, after the general junction, but with multiplied windings below Stirling. The firth of Forth is thus formed, which, swelling into a vast expanse, and turning at last somewhat toward the north, divides Edinburgh and its adjacent counties from Fifeshire, and so falls into the german ocean. Neither the forth nor its auxiliary streams in general are remarkable for rapidity, though they take their origin in a mountainous district, nor is the river itself of any great magnitude, till after the union of its several branches. This happens in a rich and fertile plain, bounded towards the north by the long waving ridge of the Ochill hills, and intersected by the frequent meanders of the river, whose incessant curves, when viewed from any eminence, exhibit an apparent labyrinth of pools.
This firth narrows considerably as it approaches its exit, and falls into the sea beneath the walls of Broughty castle. The dee rises at the western extremity of the Grampian hills, near the borders of Inverness-shire, and intersects the whole chain of that mountainous district in its course to the sea, which tends almost invariably eastward. The country encircling this fine river in the early part of its progress is wonderfully bold and romantic, especially about the castle-town of Brae-marr, and the wells of Pannanach, where the heights are clothed with vast forest of pines. The dee afterwards forms a more expanded valley, as it crosses the northern corner of Kincardineshire, and re-entering Aberdeenshire, passes under the arches of a noble bridge, a few miles before it falls into the sea, on the south side of New Aberdeen. The don finds its origin in the Grampians, somewhat northward of the dee at Brae-marr, on the borders of Banffshire, near Cock-bridge, pursuing a course rather inclined to the north-east till it meets the Urie from the north-west a little below Inverarie, from whence. The don is throughout a very rapid and romantic river, buried within its deep banks, and traversing one of the wildest districts of Scotland; the mighty ruin of Kildrumie castle frowns over its northern shore, and it afterwards passes by the towns of Monymusk and. The river is not navigable, and its capital of Old Aberdeen (now only celebrated for its university) has yielded to the more modern consequence of its southern neighbour, which the large flourishing port of the dee has enriched with great commercial advantages. The north and south Esk, are rivers of Angus; both these streams rise in the Grampian hills, which form a central ridge in this part of the island, terminating in the eastern sea near Aberdeen.
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The Spey afterwards divides Inverness-shire from Banff-shire, panel passing near Grant-Town, and through the great forests of pines which encircle the territory of Castle Grant; little afterwards distinguishes its course, though the country it traverses becomes more expanded, while the villages still remain scanty and inconsiderable. The Spey, long before it reaches the small town of Fochabers near its mouth, widens considerably, and becoming navigable, transports the abundant pines which clothe its hills, still preserving to the last strong traits of its native rapidity. The extensive plantations, magnificent house, and beautiful grounds of Castle gordon, decorate its approach to the sea with new features. The tay finds its source in the central part of the western Highlands, where the extremity of Perthshire borders on Argyleshire, in a very wild, elevated, and mountainous district; it flows towards the south-east by tyndrum to Crienlarich, and then makes a curve to the. It then makes a considerable compass by the north, and meeting the tumel, descending in that direction, pursues a southward course with it to dunkeld, where the Braan from the south-west falls into it; its tendency is then eastward, till it meets the Isla from. The tay, thus reinforced, makes a rapid curve, by the west to the south, till it reaches Perth, and beneath the rock of Kinnoul turns again to the south-east; the earne from the west joins it near Newburgh, and it then forms its firth, turning. The tay is one of the most considerable and beautiful rivers in our island, traversing the whole county of Perth, amidst the richest districts of the middle range of Scotland, and forming itself the principal ornament to some of the most romantic tracts in nature;.
The pleasant little town of Killin is delightfully situated some miles lower, on a neck of land between the two points, where the placid Lochy and the rapid tay, strongly contrasting each other in character, form the great expanse of water, called Loch tay; lofty. The tay makes its exit from the jake through the handsome stone bridge of Kenmore, the church of which village stands finely exalted on an eminence, looking directly down Loch tay. The river, now greatly increased by the junction of the lion from its pleasant dale, but still preserving all its original rapidity, rolls in majestic state between the rich groves of taymouth, and at Aberfeldie is crossed by a large stone bridge, built by general. High obtruding hills direct its winding course in its exit from the highlands, beneath the scanty remains of the celebrated wood of Birnam, from whence the ruined fortress of Dunsinane is seen at a considerable distance across the plain. The tay here makes a considerable circuit to meet the Isla from Angus, and then descending beneath the ancient palace of Scone, to the fine city of Perth, passes under the arches of its noble bridge, and sweeps in a bold semicircle round the rock. The earne descends a little below this spot from Crieffe, and beneath the elevated pile of Drummond Castle adorns the fertile vale of Straith, earne, through which its course is parallel with the tay, till the two rivers unite near Newburgh. Thus is formed that vast æstury, called the firth of tay, at the head of which the important and flourishing port of Dundee spreads over a considerable eminence.
The topaz is found in the highland mountains, and the ruby and hyacinth mixed with the sand on the sea shore. At Portsoy is found that singular kind of granite called Moses tables, which when polished, the marks in it resemble the hebrew characters on a white ground; besides these there are many curious and rare fossils: among the districts of metallic ores there are many. The rivers of this country are numerous, and descending from so elevated a country to the sea, are in general rapid and precipitous, and their innumerable cascades heighten the beauty of the scenery; the most considerable of these rivers are those of the middle division. The Spey rising in the mountainous district of Lochaber, rushes furiously into the eastern sea; and the tay discharges into the. Ocean below Dundee a greater quantity of water than perhaps any other river in Britain. In this district too the dee.
Don, and Esk, are very large rivers. In the southern district, are the rivers Forth, Clyde, and tueed, besides the numerous rivers which empty themselves into the Irish sea, and Solway frith; viz. The ayr, Glrvan, south dee, nith, and Annan. The northern division contains the beaulieu, the Orron Water, the Fleet, the Brora, and the helmsdale, besides several inferior streams. The Spey, as before-mentioned, is a rapid river, rising in the centre of those rocks and frightful precipices with which the vast mountain of the coriaraich is environed, in the wilds of the northern highlands of Inverness-shire. A small lake conceals its source, from whence, with various windings, it pursues a north-east direction, gradually verging more and more towards the north, till it reaches the sea below Fochabers. Nothing can be imagined more rude and desolate than the early part of this rivers course, as it falls in a succession of precipitous cataracts from the base of the coriaraich, and rolls with unparalleled rapidity along the valley it has formed, through an uninhabited. A scanty succession of inconsiderable villages then adorns its banks, which swell again into the compass of a small lake, called Loch-Inch, near Ruthven Castle, and two of the greatest military roads to Inverness join near it, as it crosses a corner of the county.
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The soil produces wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, and beaus, flax, hemp, hay, potatoes,. And almost every sort of crop in common with England, although not in such perfection, and at times precarious with the season. Apples and several fruits are also produced in great abundance: Juniper shrubs grow naturally on the hills, and the whortle or blue berries (vaccinium mertillum) grow on the highest mountains, in the greatest abundance. Scotland at present cannot boast best of mines of the most precious metals, but considerable quantities of gold and silver have been found at different times; no mines are now wrought solely for silver, but the lead mines are exceedingly rich in that metal. Iron ore is abundant. Copper has also been discovered in many places, and of late years a very rich mine of antimony has been opened in Westerkirk, in Dumfriesshire; the other metallic substances are cobalt, bismuth, manganese,. In the southern and middle districts, coal is abundant, but none has been yet discovered north of the tay: limestone, freestone, and slates, are found in every district; and many of the marbles prove equal in colour and polish to those of Italy. Most of the gems and precious stones have been found in Scotland, the diamond excepted; pearls are found in the great horse-muscle, a native of the northern rivers; the sapphire is found in several places of different shades, from a deep red to a transparent.
Ettrick pen 2900 Windless Law 2295 Dumfriesshire. Hartfell 2722 Whitcoom 2840 Lanarkshire. Lead Hills 15 caithness. Pap of caithness 1920 The ancient forests of Scotland have been greatly diminished, yet there are considerable remains in papers the districts of Marr, and Glentanar, rannoch, Glenmore, and Strathspey, and in Ross-shire. The fir is the most common timber. The soil of Scotland consists of every variety in nature, and its general character in point of fertility is much inferior to England. The highlands have been compared with the moorlands of Yorkshire; but of late the principal nobility and gentry have formed themselves into a society, called The highland Society of Scotland, giving premiums and various encouragements, for the improvement of the waste lands, and the amelioration.
2200 Campsie fells 1500 Kirkudbrightshire. Cairntable 1650 Scriffield 2044 Kincardineshire. Cairn Monearn 1200 mount Battock 3465 Roxburghshire. Cheviot 2682 Eildon Hill 13elkirkshire.
Scotland is naturally divided into two great divisions, highlands and Lowlands; and it may again be divided into three parts, which may be called the north, middle, and south divisions. The first or northern division is separated from the middle by a chain of lakes, stretching from the moray frith to loch Linnhe; the second or middle division is separated from the southern by the Friths of Forth and Clyde, and the Great Canal. In these two divisions, which comprehends more than two thirds of Scotland, the arable land bears but a small proportion to the mountainous regions, which are of such ruggedness and sterility as nearly to defy the efforts of human industry. The eastern coast of the middle division and a greater part of the southern, bears a resemblance to England, and in the southern division may be seen every sort of rural variety, having in many parts pdf verdant plains watered by copious streams, and covered with. The principal ridges of mountains are the Grampians; the pentland-hills in Lothian; the lammermuir-hills in Berwickshire; the Ochils, in Fife and Perthshire; and the Cheviot-hills, on the English borders. The following is a list of the most remarkable mountains and hills, with their heights above the level of the sea. Benhocan 3724, benhonzie 2922, benderig 3550, benclo, or Bengloe 3724, benlach, or Benclock 2420, ben Lawers 4015, benledi 3009.
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Scotland comprehends that part of the island of Great Britain, which lies north of the river Tweed, and is situated between 54 and 59 degrees of north latitude. It is bounded on all sides by the sea, except on the south-east, where it is joined to England. It extends 278 miles in length, but the breadth is variable, being in some places 180 miles, and in others not more than 50. It contains an area of 27,794 miles, having about 12,151,471 acres of cultivated, and 14,218,224 acres of uncultivated land, the remainder of the surface being occupied by rivers and lakes. From its situation in the midst of a great ocean, and in such a northern latitude, scotland cannot boast of a regular climate. It is likewise various in different places: from its insular situation, however, the cold is not so intense as remote in similar latitudes on the continent; the thermometer does not even sink so low during the winter as it does in the neighbourhood of London. Mountainous countries are always most subject to rain; and Great Britain being a sort of inclined plain, gradually declining from west to east, it has been supposed that on this account, the western coast is the most rainy; but in this part of the island. Notwithstanding all which, the air of Scotland is in general pure and healthy.