Go deepest with your best points, add in other points that are likewise strong, and discern which potential points and pieces of evidence do not deserve to be in the paper at all. Leaving weaker points altogether out of a paper strengthens it by heightening the significance of those now-more-central stronger points. Avoid Plagiarism at all times, it is fundamental to the intellectual enterprise to be up front and clear about whos work you are in conversation with and precisely how you are using it; this is one of the firm foundations of all scholarly and professional. It is important, therefore, for us to take this very seriously: Plagiarism is any use of anothers words without"tion marks and a citation giving them credit. Even paraphrasing anothers ideas requires a citation (but not"tion marks) to show that you are not claiming their intellectual work as wholly your own. If you are using their specific prose, you must also use"tion marks to show that the actual words belong to anothers work (if a direct"tion, in other words, a citation without"tion marks is still plagiarism, because, without the"tion marks, you are. I have a separate page on citing: please see it for correct forms.
Bird by bird : Some Instructions on, writing and Life
These statements are clear, vigorous, and concise. Answer the Prompt, if an essay is in response to a prompt, note the specifics: stay within the date ranges, and orient your argument to the scale of question being asked. Do not approach it as if anything in the general topic is going to be a good answer, nor that you can shift the question to one you'd like to answer: the essay needs to wrestle with the actual phrasing of the prompt. If a research paper, the implicit prompt is always "how was this subject important in the history of its era." we the never simply describe the past, but give the topics we investigate enough context to be able to show what was important in what we're. Communicate both Depth and Breadth. You might be tempted to take one great point or piece of evidence resume and devote your entire paper to it: focus and depth. Unless the prompt is framed that way, this will end up communicating "this is the only thing i know about this broader subject" which is not ideal. Alternatively, you might be tempted to mention every possible thing that relates to the topic - a blur of brief mentions that ends up being a mile wide and an inch deep, confusing rather than illuminating what you feel is most important. Better is the middle way: sifting the evidence and making the strong critical thinking decisions about what evidence belongs and what is best left to the side. This is a vital skill to be working.
Write "Actively this makes quite a difference in the book power of your writing. We often write tentatively, stepping back from making strong statements, and that leads to very weak and unclear writing. "Passive voice" is the term for this sort of indirect writing, and it is best to avoid it altogether. Passive voice: There is music outside that can be heard by the class. Many things done by the management of the company were not liked by its workers. These statements are convoluted, weak, and less clear. Active voice: The class enjoyed the music drifting in from outside. The company's workers hated many of management's actions.
At the end i include an explanation for some of my common comments in margins of papers. Important Components to Strong and Effective writing. General Advice, clarity, don't try to make your argument or your evidence do tricks, but do follow all rules of grammar and usage. A complicated argument is often less clear and effective than revelation a simpler one. The art of good writing is to play by the rules of grammar and usage, and to be concise. Get a copy of Strunk and White's. Elements of Style for help with this. I read it every so often, just to remind me of the things I should be striving for in my writing. Past Tense, a safe bet for history writing - mixing tenses can easily confuse your writing.
Writing is particularly important to students of history. History is intimately bound up with language. What, for example, is pre -history? It was before the written word. You cannot convincingly discuss the past if you cannot put your arguments into words, sentences, and paragraphs that "work.". Here are a few tips for writing well. Below I give you a number of important components to effective writing, including a few brief"s from the wonderful book on writing, bird by bird, and end with a sort of checklist of what I look for in papers.
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You may want to search the site to find the craft or activity that you were looking for or use the navigation on the left hand side of this screen. Note for external links: For your convenience, many activities have external educational links (other web sites). If you view a broken link or different content than the one described, please report the erroneous or broken link and we will review and correct the situation as soon as possible. Writing Tips I "Publication is not all that it is cracked up. Writing has so much to give, so much to teach, so many surprises. That thing you had to force yourself to do - the actual act of writing - turns out to be the best part.
It's like discovering that while you thought you needed the tea ceremony for the caffeine, what you really needed was the tea ceremony." - anne lamott, bird by bird, xxvi. Needs to be working on their writing. Everything we do is through the medium of language, and in whatever endeavor you embark upon after college, you will be asked to write in some form or another. Working on your writing now will help you in this class, other classes, and further down the line. Perhaps nothing is more important in your college experience than learning how to write and argue well.
Account for the season in relation to a bird's life cycle. In winter, look for basic plumages rather than breeding plumages. Watch for non-plumage identification clues, such as bird sounds, what the birds eat and their general behavior. Watch the birds over a period of several days or weeks to see the plumage change and become more distinct. This is also a great opportunity to observe molting and learn to identify in-between birds. Plumage may seem to be easy for identifying birds, but when a single species has several different types of plumage, it is more difficult.
Understanding different bird plumages and when to look for them is the best way to consistently identify birds from season to season. Special Note for 2017 : All printable templates are now in an updated and mobile friendly format. We deleted all outdated printing format files (url address ending. Html and you may have arrived at this page for that reason. Locate the template using the search box above for the updated print link version. The page you are looking for in has changed, is no longer available or the link is broken for another reason. If you would like to report the broken link, please copy and paste the web address found above on the address browser bar when you email us and we will get back to you.
The little, bird Writing Contest - sarah Selecky, writing
Regardless of a bird's age or coloration, its feathers will eventually become damaged and worn, and it is necessary to supermarket grow new ones. The process of regrowing feathers is called molting, and birds in molt may have mottled plumage that shows characteristics of both their old and new plumages. These birds may look scruffy or ragged, and they may have irregular feather tufts or bald patches as their new feathers emerge. Some birds, typically those without separate breeding and basic plumages, molt gradually throughout the year. Others will molt once or twice a year as they switch plumages seasonally. When seen during a molt, birds can look very different than during their familiar plumage phases. Using Plumage for Identification, because it is the most colorful and distinct, breeding plumage is typically the easiest phase during which to identify birds. When birds are in between phases or molting, however, identification becomes much more challenging. During essay these periods, birders have to take advantage of other clues to determine a bird's identity.
Different genders may display different plumages, and even factors such as climate and geography can make a difference in a bird's plumages. More Plumage variations, in addition to the basic bird plumages, there are a range of unusual or abnormal variations that birds can display. Leucism : A genetic condition that affects feather pigmentation and results in pale or white feathers, either in patches or over the bird's entire plumage. Melanism : A genetic condition that affects feather pigmentation and results in overly dark feathers due to an excess of dark melanin pigments. Albinism : A genetic condition that produces pale or white allover plumage as well as red or pink eyes, legs and feet due to a complete lack of pigmentation. Baldness : A temporary condition whereby a bird sheds its head feathers or other patches during a molt or as a result of damage or disease. Hybrid : A genetically crossbred bird with indistinct plumage that may show colorations and markings with traits of two or more species. Morph : A bird displaying an uncommon but not unheard of plumage variation such as very light or very dark plumage, often a regular occurrence of leucism or melanism. Some species have several recognized color morphs.
resemble females in basic plumage. This is also called non-breeding plumage or winter plumage. In some species, particularly ducks, it is called eclipse plumage because of the short time males' breeding plumage is "eclipsed" by this bland coloration. Breeding Plumage : This is the most brilliant, colorful plumage for many bird species, and it is displayed during the courtship season when birds are trying to attract mates. In dimorphic species it is most often the males that develop bold breeding plumage, and it may involve extraordinary colors or unusual feather shapes such as long streamers. This is also called alternate plumage, nuptial plumage or spring plumage. In some species, breeding plumage may be worn for the entire spring and summer, while for other species it may last only a few weeks. Not all bird species display all plumage types, and when and for how long each type of plumage is displayed can also vary.
In precocial species the birds hatch with this plumage, while in altricial species the birds grow these fluffy feathers in their first few days of life. The coloration for these feathers is often plain and the feathers serve as both camouflage and insulation for the young birds. Juvenile Plumage : This thesis is the coloration young birds have during their first few weeks or months of life, usually during the summer and early fall after they have hatched. This plumage is still relatively bland to provide good camouflage, but it may begin to show mature colors and markings. In many dimorphic species, juvenile plumage resembles that of adult females, which are often more camouflaged. Subadult Plumage : Birds that take several years to mature may have several subadult plumages they display during adolescence. This is especially common in raptors and gulls, both of which can take 2-3 years or longer to reach maturity. Until then, immature birds have less distinct plumage that gradually grows to resemble the adult plumage more closely each year. Basic Plumage : This is a mature bird's non-breeding plumage.
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Physical appearance is the main way most birders identify different bird species, and understanding the differences between bird plumages is critical for proper identification. As birders learn more about plumages, they are often surprised at how different birds can look from season to season as their feathers change. The term plumage refers to a bird's feathers, including the color and pattern those feathers produce. Some birds have a variety of plumages during an annual cycle, while essay other birds sport the same plumage throughout the year. While plumage is, in many cases, the easiest way to identify birds, it can be more challenging as birds change plumages or adopt color variations that are less familiar to birders. Types of Bird Plumages, there are several basic plumages that many bird species exhibit throughout the year. Natal Plumage : Very young birds just a few days or weeks old have natal or birth plumage.