Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a "superstructure" that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is paul Kennedy's hugely successful. The rise and Fall of the Great Powers, which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its gnp on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the left who may be sympathetic to marxism, but of many passionate anti-marxists as well.
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Ii, for hegel, the longman contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness,. On the level of ideas 4 - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. 5, he did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the "material" world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the battle of Jena. But while hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by john maynard keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology.
3, but this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of "contradictions primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over "large" issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, kojève's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, kojève left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the european Economic Community, until his death. To his contemporaries at mid-century, kojève's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a french intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War ii and at the very height of the cold War. To comprehend how Kojève could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism.
Phenomenology of Mind, the hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojève, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. 2, the battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to marxists) actualized the principles of the French revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojève, this so-called "universal homogenous state" found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing plan more heroic than the creation of the common dates Market.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre kojève, a brilliant Russian émigré who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the. Ecole Practique des hautes Etudes. 1, while largely unknown in the United States, kojève had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as jean-paul Sartre on the left and raymond Aron on the right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via kojève. Kojève sought to resurrect the hegel of the.
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Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete. The real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run. To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. I, the notion of the end of history is not an original one.
Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by marx from his great German predecessor, georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, renter such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a marxist concept, but a hegelian one.
The advantage of computers can also be seen in the fact that they might just be able to improve administration through the world. By providing daily accurate information to the administration departments, computers may change the way decisions are taken across the eping all the above mentioned things in mind, we must accept that if used the right way, computers are a gift of science to mankind. In watching the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the cold War, and the fact that "peace" seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial.
Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate middle eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an "end of ideology" or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted. The triumph of the west, of the western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages.
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And helping to improve medicine in a big way. The knowledge that computers are providing in this field may lead to better use and purchase of medicinal drugs and ensure better health. This also leads to a better diagnosing pattern and makes health care faster and more efficiently. Although computers are bringing the write evolution of technology and changing the way lives are lived, it cannot be denied that there are areas where the impacts of the computer system are not fully recognized yet. For instance if we take the education sector, the literacy rates have not been improved by computers the way other sectors have seemed to have gotten better over night. The fact remains that 64 of our population remains to date illiterate, and it will be a revolutionary act if computers were made the full use of and worked with to spread educational essays awareness, in all areas, especially the underprivileged sector. They can be used to plan out lessons, and lessons can be taught on the computers too, the benefit of the prospect lying in the fact that computers excel at lots of different things altogether, which means they can be used to teach not only. Perhaps one may think the horrendous thought that computers may take the teachers place in the classroom, but we must look at the prospect with the brighter side. No longer will the teacher remain a person who only fits data into a pupils mind; and once again become that one supreme authority who inculcates both philosophical and spiritual education amongst his or her students, rising in esteem and role play.
Interestingly, automatic operations of vehicles, like trains also help to ensure further safety and reliability of the journey. Computers can be supermarket used to observe and predict traffic patterns which would be a grand benefit to all and would save the hassle of getting stuck for hours in the roadblocks and traffics. Computers can also drastically change the way agricultural tasks and businesses are carried out all over the world. With regard to agriculture, computers are being used to find out the best possible kinds of soil, plants and to check which match of these would result in the perfect crops. Use of computers thus in this sector along with the use of better agricultural practices and products in several countries, like india, could help the agricultural industry reach soaring heights, directly assuring the welfare of the economy. It is also wonderful to see that the invention of this unbelievable machine has brought a ray of hope in the darkness of the sick citizens world. Computers are very capable of bringing along a medical revolution. Where in health sectors computers are being used for research regarding blood groups, medical histories, etc.
used not only at the office or at home, but in all kinds of sectors and businesses. They are used at airports, restaurants, railway stations, banks etc. Slowly and gradually, as computers are penetrating through the modern society, people are getting more and more optimistic about the promises its invention made. They are also used in the government sectors, businesses and industry, and through witnessing the rapid progress of the computer; mankind slowly sees the lights it has brought along. One of the best things about the computer is the fact that it can help us to save so much of manual power, cost, and time. By the use of a computer, tasks can be done automatically and that will lead to saving the countless hours that may otherwise have been spent on doing the job manually. Computers also ensure more accuracy. Examples of such cases include ticket booking, payment of bills, insurance and shopping.
It can do all the functions at a speedy rate and also helps us to search and progress in our homes and businesses. A computer owl can therefore be called a calculator with a twist for not only does it perform fast calculations, but it also has other special characteristics. The computer has thoroughly changed the way we witness things, with its special auto correcting tools, which work with all languages, all logic and all subjects. There was a time when computers were only heard of as a luxury. However today they are an unavoidable part of success and development. No longer are they owned only through theft and by the filthy rich, in fact computers are and will in the coming days and months be used to accomplish the brilliant goals of success and unparalleled development. For example, in India, the accurate knowledge and use of computers will bring change in a big and astonishing way.
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