Recently, he, gupta, white grudin (1998) found the same result with the viewing of online video presentations: they made the same "inverted pyramid" argument for the construction of on-line videos. The same philosophy should apply with lists of links: put the important ones at the top, least important last. Moral: if you want something to be salient, follow conventions. Violate the conceptual model, even if the violation seems perfectly sensible, and you are apt to discover that readers miss critical information. In summary, the "Banner Blindness" findings are very important. They reaffirm the rule of consistency, coherence, and the following of established conventions.
The Oxford book
This is the cause of numerous perceptual tricks and illusions, of numerous errors. I have used it as an explanation for some type of human error. Designers who break out of the established genre thereby do so at considerable risk: information outside of a person's schema is apt to be overlooked. Do you read the headings in papers? Authors spend a lot of time formulating them, wording them, formatting them. I suspect most readers skip over them without even noticing them, just as we do not notice page numbers when captured by an absorbing novel. Our attention moves directly to the location most likely to contain the information of interest, most likely, that is, in terms of previously established convention, most likely in terms of the mental schema held by the reader. So what do you do if you want something to be salient, to stick out? Morkes and nielsen (1997; nielsen, 1997) discovered that people read web pages very differently than printed pages: They start at the beginning, but are not apt to get very far. As a result, morkes and nielsen urged web designers resume to follow the "inverted pyramid" style of writing, in which key points and conclusions come first, less important matters and background material last.
So too is it with links - i do not "look" at that big banner glaring at me - that doesn't fit the link-positioning structure of my web-page schema. So i scroll past it and focus on night regions that fit the schema. When one puts critical links in a banner, that breaks with established convention, breaks the schema. The human attentional system is superb at homing in on areas of importance. This is human efficiency at its best, using very little information to decide where best to focus. Usually this behavioral pattern works well. But when something doesn't fit the established schema, it is apt to be missed.
I go to a web page to look for a link to "important-information." my first task is a meta-search: I must discover where to look, where to focus my attention. Do i want a link? I must look in link-like places. Web pages are now a reasonably established genre, one in which lists of links have a standardized appearance. I therefore quickly scan the page for areas that look promising, for things that look like lists, often one item per line, often indented from the surrounding text. All other places are ignored, for they are unlikely to have lists of links. This behavior comes under many names in cognition: frames, schemas, scripts. But all point to the same point: people use their deep understanding of the situation or the genre to guide their search. When I lose book my glasses, i do not look on the ceiling: I look on the floor, or the cabinet top.
I suspect the banner was indeed noticed: I suspect that people carefully scrolled past it to get it out of the way so they could search the less bold, less colorful, less salient places. The fact that the searchers missed the supposedly salient information has nothing to do with big, colorful and salience: it has to do with schemas, frameworks, and expectations. If they weren't, we couldn't have science of cognition. And as a cognitive scientist now applying what I have learned in a manner i once labeled "cognitive engineering i believe that behavior does have its discoverable causes. Here is my theory. Note that this is still theory, informed, but nonetheless, still untested. If the banner blindness paper tells us anything, it is not to accept theory until it has been tested through observation. Still, the theory seems pertinent, relevant, and consistent with a large body of existing knowledge, so let me try it out on you. Once again i invoke schema theory.
Professor Frank pajares: Web Site redirect
People follow their interests, their needs, their customs. They are driven by curiosity, boredom, emotion. And dissertation the "they" refers to "we. Benway and Lane showed that if something is too obvious, too big, too powerful, it is overlooked (a point well known to Sherlock holmes, by the way or perhaps more precisely, known to conan doyle). What Benway and Lane found was this.
Suppose a designer wants to make sure that people browsing a site can find "important-information." The designer carefully makes the link to "important-information" big, bold, colorful. Nobody could possibly miss. Lo and behold, benway and Lane showed, it was the rare individual who noticed that this bold and salient banner contained the information being sought. Why does something so big and central escape notice? Well, there is seeing and then there is seeing.
The first body paragraph discusses the advantages of cloning humans, and then the second body paragraph looks at the problems associated with this. The change of direction to look at the other side is clearly marked with a transition word however and a topic sentence: However, for good reasons, many people view this as a worrying development. Other transition words are used effectively to guide the reader through the ideas in the human cloning essay: Firstly. The candidate demonstrates that they can use a mix of complex structures. For example: due to breakthroughs in medical science and improved diets, people are living much longer than in the past.
If we have the ability to clone humans, it has to be questioned where this cloning will end). Originally published in internetworking, march 1999 1, benway and Lane have studied "Banner Blindness" (itg newsletter, dec. 1998:.3) the fact that people tend to ignore those big, flashy, colorful banners at the top of web pages. This is pretty interesting stuff, for the entire reason they are so big and obnoxious is to attract attention, yet they fail. Evidently nobody ever studied real users before they simply assumed that big, colorful items were visible. This paper, shows once again the importance of observations over logic when it comes to predicting human behavior. People behave the way they behave, not the way our logical analyses and wishes would have them behave.
Orion Magazine dark Ecology
It would involve creating another human and then eventually killing it in order to use its organs, which it could be argued is murder. This is obviously a sin according to religious texts. Also, dilemmas would arise over what rights these people have, as surely they would be humans just like the rest. Furthermore, if we have the ability to clone humans, it has to be questioned where this cloning will end. Is it then acceptable for people to start cloning relatives or family members who have died? To conclude, i do not agree with this procedure due to the ethical issues and dilemmas it would create. Cloning animals has been a positive development, but this is where it should end. (276 words comments, the essay is well-organized, with a clear introducion which introduces the topic: The cloning of animals has been occurring for a number of years fuller now, and this has now opened up the possibility of cloning humans too. And it has a thesis statement that makes it clear exactly how the human cloning essay will be structured and what the candidate's opinion is: Although there are clear benefits to humankind of cloning to provide spare body parts, i believe it raises a number.
Due to breakthroughs in medical science and improved isb diets, people are living much longer than in the past. This, though, has brought with it problems. As people age, their organs can fail so they need replacing. If humans were cloned, their organs could then be used to replace those of sick people. It is currently the case that there are often not enough organ donors around to fulfil this need, so cloning humans would overcome the issue as there would then be a ready supply. However, for good reasons, many people view this as a worrying development. Firstly, there are religious arguments against.
If you write about other issues to do with human cloning, you may go off topic. Model Human Cloning Essay, you should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: As people live longer and longer, the idea of cloning human beings in order to provide spare parts is becoming a reality. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. Model Answer for Human Cloning Essay. The cloning of animals has been occurring for a number of years now, and this has now opened up the possibility of cloning humans too. Although there are clear benefits to humankind of cloning to provide spare body parts, i believe it raises a number of worrying ethical issues.
If you look at the task, the wording is slightly different from the common 'do you agree or disagree' essay. However, it is essentially asking the same thing. As people live longer and longer, the idea of cloning human beings in order to provide spare parts is becoming a reality. The idea horrifies most people, yet it is no longer mere science fiction. To what extent do you agree with such a procedure? Have you any reservations? You are asked if you agree with human cloning to use their body parts (in other words, what are the benefits and what reservations (concerns) you have (in other words, what are the disadvantages). So the best way to answer this human cloning essay is probably to look at both sides of the issue as has been done in the model answer.
Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric
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